Documents & Reports

Jon Strand

Senior Economist

 JON STRAND is Senior Economist in the Development Research Group, Environment and Energy Team, in the World Bank. His work area is environmental and energy economics, focusing on climate-related issues. He also holds (and is currently on leave from) a chair as professor of economics at the University of Oslo. Within the fields of environmental, resource and energy economics, his main topics for research have been environmental valuation using both nonmarket and market methods, including the valuation of statistical life; natural resource extraction issues focusing on developing countries; and environmental policy design issues including environmental tax policy and climate policy. He has published widely, with about 60 published articles in international economics journals. He has served as consultant for the OECD, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank in environmental policy matters. During 2005-2008, he worked in the Fiscal Affairs Department of the IMF, as the Fund’s environmental economist.

The list below is of World Bank working papers and publications.  

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Valuing global public goods : a European Delphi stated preference survey of population willingness to pay for Amazon rainforest preservation (English)

The Amazon Rainforest is a global public good. As such, and given that 15 percent of the original Amazon forest area has already been lost, households worldwide might be willing to pay to reduce or avoid additional losses. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6637 OCT 01, 2013

Navrud, Stale; Strand, Jon

How much is the Amazon worth ? the state of knowledge concerning the value of preserving amazon rainforests (English)

This paper surveys the current state of knowledge concerning the value of the Amazon rainforest, including a survey of work to date to quantify changes in economic values when the rainforest cover changes. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6668 OCT 01, 2013

May, Peter H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Strand, Jon

Dynamic climate policy with both strategic and non-strategic agents : taxes versus quantities (English)

This paper studies a dynamic game where each of two large blocs, of fossil fuel importers and exporters respectively, sets either taxes or quotas to exercise power in fossil-fuel markets. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6679 OCT 01, 2013

Karp, Larry; Siddiqui, Sauleh; Strand, Jon

Water hauling and girls' school attendance : some new evidence from Ghana (English)

In large parts of the world, a lack of home tap water burdens households as the water must be brought to the house from outside, at great expense in terms of effort and time. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6443 MAY 01, 2013

Strand, Jon; Nauges, Celine

Political determinants of fossil fuel pricing (English)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of economic and political determinants of gasoline and diesel prices for about 200 countries over the period 1991-2010. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6470 MAY 01, 2013

Strand, Jon; van Beers, Cees

Calculating the carbon footprint from different classes of air travel (English)

This paper develops a new methodology for calculating the "carbon footprint" of air travel whereby emissions from travel in premium (business and first) classes depend heavily on the average class-specific occupied floor space. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6471 MAY 01, 2013

Strand, Jon; Bofinger, Heinrich

Energy intensive infrastructure investments with retrofits in continuous time : effects of uncertainty on energy use and carbon emissions (English)

Energy-intensive infrastructure may tie up fossil energy use and carbon emissions for a long time after investments, making the structure of such investments crucial for society. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6430 APR 01, 2013

Strand, Jon; Framstad, Nils Christian

Political economy aspects of fuel subsidies : a conceptual framework (English)

While notoriously inefficient, fuel subsidies are widespread, and in many cases politically stable. This paper discusses and models various political economy aspects of fuel subsidies, focusing on gasoline and kerosene. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6392 MAR 01, 2013

Strand, Jon

Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations (English)

This paper studies interactions between a "policy bloc's" emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy "fringe" of countries (such as for the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol). ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6281 NOV 01, 2012

Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

Market-based instruments for international aviation and shipping as a source of climate finance (English)

The international aviation and maritime sectors today enjoy relatively favorable tax treatment, as their fuels are not taxed and the sectors are not subject to any value-added tax or turnover tax. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5950 JAN 01, 2012

Strand, Jon; Parry, Ian; Keen, Michael

Allocative inefficiencies resulting from subsidies to agricultural electricity use : an illustrative model (English)

This paper provides an analytical discussion of several interconnected resource allocation problems from under-pricing of electricity used by farmers for groundwater extraction. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5955 JAN 01, 2012

Strand, Jon

Fiscal implications of climate change : Fiscal implications of climate change (English)

This paper provides a primer on the fiscal implications of climate change, in particular the policies for responding to it. Many of the complicated challenges that arise in limiting climate change (through greenhouse gas emissions mitigation), and in dealing with the effects that remain (through adaptation to climate change impacts), are of a fiscal nature. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5956 JAN 01, 2012

Strand, Jon; Keen, Michael; Jones, Benjamin

Strategic climate policy with offsets and incomplete abatement : carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade (English)

This paper provides a first analysis of optimal offset policies by a "policy bloc" of fossil fuel importers implementing a climate policy, facing a (non-policy) fringe of other importers, and a bloc of fuel exporters. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5675 JUN 01, 2011

Strand, Jon

Low-level versus high-level equilibrium in public utility service (English)

Heterogeneity of public utility services is common in developing countries. In a "high-level" equilibrium, the quality of utility services is high, consumer willingness to pay for services is high, the utility is well funded and staff well paid in order to induce high quality of performance. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5723 JUN 01, 2011

Strand, Jon

Implications of a lowered damage trajectory for mitigation in a continuous-time stochastic model (English)

This paper provides counterexamples to the idea that mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change, and adaptation to climate change, are always and everywhere substitutes. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5724 JUN 01, 2011

Strand, Jon

Infrastructure investments under uncertainty with the possibility of retrofit : theory and simulations (English)

Investments in large, long-lived, energy-intensive infrastructure investments using fossil fuels increase longer-term energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, unless the plant is shut down early or undergoes costly retrofit later. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5516 JAN 01, 2011

Strand, Jon; Siddiqui, Sauleh; Miller, Sebastian

The full economic cost of groundwater extraction (English)

When a groundwater basin is exploited by a large number of farmers, acting independently, each farmer has little incentive to practice conservation that would primarily benefit other farmers. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5494 DEC 01, 2010

Strand, Jon

Inertia in infrastructure development : some analytical aspects, and reasons for inefficient infrastructure choices (English)

This paper uses some simple conceptual models to draw out various implications of infrastructure investments with long lifetimes for the ability of societies to reduce their future greenhouse gas emissions. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5295 MAY 01, 2010

Strand, Jon

Carbon offsets with endogenous environmental policy (English)

Interests in obtaining carbon offsets in host countries for Clean Development Mechanism projects may serve as an obstacle to implementing more stringent general environmental policies in the same countries. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5296 MAY 01, 2010

Strand, Jon

Climate cost uncertainty, retrofit cost uncertainty, and infrastructure closedown : a framework for analysis (English)

Large and energy-intensive infrastructure investments with long life times have substantial implications for climate policy. This study focuses on options to scale down energy consumption and carbon emissions now and in the future, and on the costs of doing so. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5208 FEB 01, 2010

Strand, Jon; Miller, Sebastian

Title Document Date Report No. Document Type Also available in
Valuing global public goods : a European Delphi stated preference survey of population willingness to pay for Amazon rainforest preservation (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2013 WPS6637 Policy Research Working Paper
How much is the Amazon worth ? the state of knowledge concerning the value of preserving amazon rainforests (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2013 WPS6668 Policy Research Working Paper
Dynamic climate policy with both strategic and non-strategic agents : taxes versus quantities (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2013 WPS6679 Policy Research Working Paper
Water hauling and girls' school attendance : some new evidence from Ghana (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2013 WPS6443 Policy Research Working Paper
Political determinants of fossil fuel pricing (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2013 WPS6470 Policy Research Working Paper
Calculating the carbon footprint from different classes of air travel (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2013 WPS6471 Policy Research Working Paper
Energy intensive infrastructure investments with retrofits in continuous time : effects of uncertainty on energy use and carbon emissions (English)
See More +
APR 01, 2013 WPS6430 Policy Research Working Paper
Political economy aspects of fuel subsidies : a conceptual framework (English)
See More +
MAR 01, 2013 WPS6392 Policy Research Working Paper
Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations (English)
See More +
NOV 01, 2012 WPS6281 Policy Research Working Paper
Market-based instruments for international aviation and shipping as a source of climate finance (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2012 WPS5950 Policy Research Working Paper
Allocative inefficiencies resulting from subsidies to agricultural electricity use : an illustrative model (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2012 WPS5955 Policy Research Working Paper
Fiscal implications of climate change : Fiscal implications of climate change (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2012 WPS5956 Policy Research Working Paper
Strategic climate policy with offsets and incomplete abatement : carbon taxes versus cap-and-trade (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2011 WPS5675 Policy Research Working Paper
Low-level versus high-level equilibrium in public utility service (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2011 WPS5723 Policy Research Working Paper
Implications of a lowered damage trajectory for mitigation in a continuous-time stochastic model (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2011 WPS5724 Policy Research Working Paper
Infrastructure investments under uncertainty with the possibility of retrofit : theory and simulations (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2011 WPS5516 Policy Research Working Paper
The full economic cost of groundwater extraction (English)
See More +
DEC 01, 2010 WPS5494 Policy Research Working Paper
Inertia in infrastructure development : some analytical aspects, and reasons for inefficient infrastructure choices (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2010 WPS5295 Policy Research Working Paper
Carbon offsets with endogenous environmental policy (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2010 WPS5296 Policy Research Working Paper
Climate cost uncertainty, retrofit cost uncertainty, and infrastructure closedown : a framework for analysis (English)
See More +
FEB 01, 2010 WPS5208 Policy Research Working Paper