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The rise of the middle class and economic growth in ASEAN (English)

This paper presents estimates of the relationship between the share of income accruing to the middle class and gross domestic product per capita of economies from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS8068 MAY 18, 2017

Brueckner,Markus; Dabla-Norris,Era; Gradstein,Mark; Lederman,Daniel Disclosed

Educational expansion : evidence and interpretation : Educational expansion : Evidence and interpretation (English)

The authors document the vast expansion of schooling over the past several decades, as well as convergence in schooling measures across countries. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS3245 MAR 01, 2004

Gradstein, Mark; Nikitin, Denis

The political economy of public spending on education, inequality, and growth (English)

Public provision of education has often been perceived as universal and egalitarian, but in reality it is not. Political pressure typically results in incidence bias in favor of the rich. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS3162 NOV 01, 2003

Gradstein, Mark

Governance and economic growth (English)

Because protection of property rights cannot be appropriated by any individual, it is widely recognized as being the state's responsibility. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS3098 JUL 31, 2003

Gradstein, Mark

Democracy and income inequality : an empirical analysis (English)

Standard political economy theories suggest that democratization has a moderating effect on income inequality. But the empirical literature has failed to uncover any such robust relationship. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS2561 MAR 31, 2001

Gradstein, Mark; Milanovic, Branko; Ying, Yvonne