Contrary to what is still often believed, the climate and trade communities have a lot in common: a common problem (a global "public good"), common foes (vested interests using protection for slowing down climate change policies), and common friends (firms delivering goods, services, and equipment that are both cleaner and cheaper). ... See More + They have thus many reasons to buttress each other. The climate community would enormously benefit from adopting the principle of "national treatment," which would legitimize and discipline the use of carbon border tax adjustment and the principle of "most-favored nation," which would ban carbon tariffs. The main effect of this would be to fuel a dual world economy of clean countries trading between themselves and dirty countries trading between themselves at a great cost for climate change. And the trade community would enormously benefit from a climate community capable of designing instruments that would support the adjustment efforts to be made by carbon-intensive firms much better than instruments such as antidumping or safeguards, which have proved to be ineffective and perverse. That said, implementing these principles will be difficult. The paper focuses on two key problems. First, the way carbon border taxes are defined has a huge impact on the joint outcome from climate change, trade, and development perspectives. Second, the multilateral climate change regime could easily become too complex to be manageable. Focusing on carbon-intensive sectors and building "clusters" of production processes considered as having "like carbon-intensity" are the two main ways for keeping the regime manageable. Developing them in a multilateral framework would make them more transparent and unbiased. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS5378 JUL 01, 2010
Messerlin, Patrick A.
How can international trade agreements promote development and how can rules be designed to benefit poor countries? Can multilateral trade cooperation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) help developing countries create and strengthen institutions and regulatory regimes that will enhance the gains from trade and integration into the global economy? ... See More + And should this even be done? These are questions that confront policy makers and citizens in both rich and poor countries, and they are the subject of this publication. It analyzes how the trading system could be made more supportive of economic development, without eroding the core WTO functions. See Less -
Publication 34769 DEC 01, 2005
Evenett, Simon J. [editor]; Hoekman, Bernard M. [editor]; Bagwell, Kyle; Barton, John H.; Francois, Joseph; Gawande, Kishore; Ismail, Faizel; Keck, Alexander; Levy, Philip I.; Low, Patrick; Lucenti, Krista; Manole, Vlad; Martin, Will; Maskus, Keith E.; Mavroidis, Petros C.; Messerlin, Patrick A.; Ozden, Caglar; Prowse, Susan; Reinhardt, Eric; Saggi, Kamal; Shingal, Anirudh; Staiger, Robert W.; Subrahmanyam, BVR
Agriculture is yet again causing contention in international trade negotiations. It caused long delays to the Uruguay Round in the late 1980s and 1990s, and it is again proving to be the major stumbling block in the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations (formally known as the Doha Development Agenda, or DDA). ... See More + It is ironic that agricultural policy is so contentious, given its small and declining importance in the global economy. The question arises on why so much "ado" about agriculture: because policies affecting this declining sector are so politically sensitive, there are always self-interested groups suggesting it be sidelined in trade negotiations-as indeed it has been in numerous sub-global preferential trading agreements, and was in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) prior to the Uruguay Round. To answer some questions, this book first sets the scene (Part I) for presenting the issues on agriculture, trade reform, and the Doha Agenda, seeking to identify what is it at stake, namely, the relative importance of import barriers, export subsidies, and domestic support, including the special and differential treatment for developing countries. Part II looks at the agricultural market access, examining the impact of agricultural tariffs, and of tariff cuts through alternative formulas, on reducing tariffs vs. expanding tariff rate quotas, to then focus on the serious concern of erosion of tariff preferences. The third part concentrates on export subsidies and the domestic support, prioritizing on the removal of the agricultural export subsidies' exception, while taking a new look at agricultural domestic support under the World Trade Organization, and, at the consequences of reducing limits on aggregate measurement of support. Finally, the book provides (Part IV) the Doha reform scenarios, with an in-depth look at the market and welfare implications of the Doha reform. See Less -
Publication 34206 NOV 01, 2005
Anderson, Kym [editor]; Martin, Will [editor]; Hertel, Thomas W.; Keeney, Roman; Josling, Tim; de Gorter, Harry; Kliauga, Erika; Bouet, Antoine; Fontagne, Lionel; Jean, Sebastien; Hoekman, Bernard; Messerlin, Patrick; Hart, Chad E.; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Hans G.; Zobbe, Henrick; Sumner, Daniel A.; Orden, David; Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Anderson, Kym; Martin, Will
China finds itself in a unique situation on antidumping and safeguard issues. It is by far the main target of antidumping measures, but (so far) one of the smallest users of such measures. ... See More + China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession protocol includes stringent antidumping and safeguard provisions that its trading partners may use against its exports. The article examines three related concerns: how quickly large developing economies can become intensive users of antidumping measures, an evolution raising concerns about China's recent antidumping enforcement; how China could minimize its exposure to foreign antidumping cases, a recipe for both improving trade outcomes and for China's taking a leading role in reforming WTO antidumping; and the opportunities that the Doha round of trade negotiations offer to China for negotiating stricter disciplines both on WTO contingent protection and on the use by China's trading partners of the special provisions included in China's accession protocol. See Less -
Journal Article 77463 JAN 01, 2004
Messerlin, Patrick A.
China's accession to the World Trade Organization, policy reform, and poverty reduction : an introduction; by Deepak Bhattasali, Li Shantong, and Will Martin. ... See More + Impacts of China's accession to the World Trade Organization; by Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. Tracking distortions in agriculture : China and its accession to the World Trade Organization; by Jikun Huang, Scott Rozelle, and in Chang. Regulated efficiency, World Trade Organization accession, and the motor vehicle sector in China; by Joseph F. Francois and Dean Spinanger. China in the World Trade Organization : antidumping and safeguards; by Patrick A. Messerlin. See Less -
Publication 29663 JAN 01, 2004
Winters, L. Alan [editor]; Bhattasali, Deepak; Shantong, Li; Martin, Will; Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin; Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott; Chang, Min; Francois, Joseph F.; Spinanger, Dean; Messerlin, Patrick A.
The author looks at the OECD domestic political economy associated with ongoing WTO farm negotiations, focusing on the OECD-based coalitions which could be helpful for WTO negotiators. ... See More + Support from individual final consumers and taxpayers is far from guaranteed because consumers are spending less and less on food, and because taxpayers support, more or less willingly, non-trade concerns, such as environment or food safety, that they tend (wrongly) to associate with domestic farmers. As a result, trade negotiators should look at other allies. A natural candidate is a powerful group of consumers-the agribusiness industries-for which a reduction of the still high protection of their products under the Doha Round requires a corresponding reduction of protection in their farm inputs. They should also talk to farmers, hence sharpen their arguments, in particular by focusing on the distinction between small and large farmers, the latter being by far the main beneficiaries of the current OECD farm protectionist policies. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS3009 APR 30, 2003
The authors compare the European Community's "trade fundamentals" prevailing in the 1960s with those applying in Arab countries today. ... See More + The fundamentals differ significantly-Arab countries trade much less with each other than EC members did, and the importance of such trade in GDP varies greatly. This suggests that a viable Arab integration strategy must follow a path that differs from the preferential trade liberalization-led approach implemented by the European Community. An alternative is to complement long-standing attempts to liberalize merchandise trade with an effort that revolves around service sector reforms and liberalization. This may prove to be an effective mechanism to support reforms as, in principle, there is a major constituency in each Arab country that has an interest in improving the performance of services-the natural resource-based and manufacturing sectors. A key condition for such an approach to be feasible is that Arab cooperation helps overcome political economy resistance to national, unilateral action, or, generates direct gains from cooperation in specific policy areas. The EC experience suggests that a services-based integration strategy will be complex and must be carefully designed and sequenced. Given the importance of services-related trade and logistics transactions costs, a first step might focus on bringing such costs down through a concerted joint effort. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS2921 OCT 31, 2002
Hoekman, Bernard; Messerlin, Patrick
By increasing the costs of imports, minimum unit import reference prices not only generate the usual distortions one expects from tariff protection but add new ones that a pure tariff system would not generate. ... See More + Reference prices substantially reduce the price gap between imports with prices above and below the reference price. By making cheap imports relatively more expensive than expensive imports, reference prices affect quality in three ways that appear not to have been analyzed before: 1) they can induce foreign firms to shift toward more expensive exports to the country with reference prices; 2) they can induce domestic producers in that country to shift production toward lower-quality, cheaper goods; and 3) because this decreases the relative price of the expensive varieties, domestic consumers may lean toward buying more expensive goods. Using the case of Uruguay, the authors estimate what protection the reference price procedures provide for Uruguayan industries and analyze how this protection affects Uruguay's economy. The authors show that the reference and minimum export price procedures impose floor prices on imports that cover more than a third of value added in Uruguayan manufacturing. These systems jeopardize trade liberalization efforts by creating the impression that tariff cuts are greater than they really are. These systems also create massive distortions between the relative domestic prices of imported goods above and below the floor prices. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS903 MAY 31, 1992
Changanaqui, Federico; Messerlin, Patrick
The years 1986 - 90 may enter the history of international economic relations as a period of unexpected progress toward a more open world services economy with greater opportunities for trade and development. ... See More + The progress achieved in the Uruguay Round negotiations on services testifies that trade negotiators and national decisionmakers are realizing that trade in services is similar in fundamental ways to trade in goods. This is not to deny that trade in services has its own special characteristics, notably in the modes of delivering services to foreign markets. The intangibility and nonstorability of most services have raised new practical issues for services negotiations, which must address international movements of service providers and factors of production. Trade negotiators have agreed on a set of concepts derived from their experiences with trade and foreign direct investment, also taking into account the distinctive features of international transactions in services. Part I looks at basic economic tools; Part II presents for each main group of services, the economic characteristics of their production, modes of delivery etc; Part III uses case studies to examine the basic questions that the delegations will have in mind as they negotiate a framework agreement. See Less -
Publication 8609 APR 30, 1990
Messerlin, Patrick A.; Sauvant, Karl P.
This paper addresses the issues of antidumping actions. It surveys all the anticartel cases preceded or followed by related antidumping cases existing in the recent European Community (EC) experience. ... See More + The paper focuses on the major twin cases which have occurred in two predominant petrochemical products. It assesses the extent of the capture of the antidumping procedures by the cartels in these two main twin cases and estimates the costs of the antidumping protection and the deterrent power of the anticartel actions. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS397 APR 30, 1990
Messerlin, Patrick A.
Slower growth in the 1980s - of world trade as well as of developing countries' trade - is due mostly to slower income growth, and prospects are that the OECD countries' growth of gross domestic product will slow significantly from the rates recorded before 1980. ... See More + Thus, at a time when the openness of the international trading system is increasingly threatened by new trade barriers and domestic assistance to industry, it is particularly important to developing countries that openness be maintained. In keeping with this concern, this paper examines two questions: 1) what is the impact of industrial countries' industrial policies on developing country trade in manufactures? and 2) what policy changes to benefit developing countries might be taken up at the ongoing Uruguay Round of multilatereral trade negotiations? Finally, the report examines a subject that previous World Bank reports have thoroughly explored : the cross country effects of industrial countries' policies on developing country trade and output. See Less -
Publication 8024 JUN 30, 1989
Finger, J. Michael; Messerlin, Patrick A.
The Uruguay Round Negotiating Groups on countervailing and antidumping procedures share many common issues. This is not accidental, claims this paper, but mirrors the way import-competing firms have become the driving force of antidumping and countervailing procedures set up under the Tokyo Round. ... See More + Countervailing actions are likely to be a poor instrument for limiting subsidies for economic reasons inherent in the profit maximizing behaviour of the complaining firms. However, to strengthen disciplines on countervailing measures would be meaningless without narrowing the currently pervasive definition of dumping and strengthening disciplines in antidumping procedures. This is related to the fact that US and EC firms have increasingly used antidumping procedures as a substitute for countervailing actions. The paper underlines the importance of disciplines in antidumping procedures by noting the links between antidumping, safeguard procedures, and the Multifibre Arrangement. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS186 APR 30, 1989
Messerlin, Patrick A.
This paper has analyzed implications of the U.K, French and German voluntary export restraints (VERs) negotiated with Japanese carmakers. The paper shows how VERs do not protect domestic industries and probably end up costing consumers more. ... See More + First, most EC countries followed suit after the British negotiation with Japan in 1976 (the domino effect). Second, the VERs did not arrest import penetration by third countries. When Japanese imports were restricted, the French simply bought Italian and German cars. Third, the Japanese upgraded the quality of cars sold on the French market between 1981 and 1983 (the VER was not strictly binding in France until 1984 and in Germany until 1985). Fourth, between 1979 and 1986, French, German, and Japanese producers supplied an increasingly similar product mix on the French car market, whereas the Italians created a distinctly different type of product. Fifth, in 1984 and 1985 the quota raised auto prices in France about 9%, costing French consumers about 320 million francs and saving only about 300 jobs. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS21 JUN 30, 1988
de Melo, Jaime; Messerlin, Patrick
This paper finds that the current GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) consistent antidumping laws have a strong protectionist drift and a procartel bias. ... See More + They endanger the very edifice of the international trade system based on GATT rules. LDCs (Less Developed Countries) and NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) are deeply involved in antidumping actions, both as defendants and as prosecutors. They are hurt not only by antidumping actions initiated by other countries but also by their own antidumping laws, which may jeopardize their trade liberalization programs. LDCs and NICs should play an active role in reforming GATT rules to reduce the GATT bias in favor of "injured industries" that compete for imports and to make GATT rules conform more to their ongoing trade liberalization programs. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS16 JUN 30, 1988
|Title||Document Date||Report No.||Document Type||Also available in|
|Climate change and trade policy : from mutual destruction to mutual support (English) See More +||JUL 01, 2010||WPS5378||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Economic development and multilateral trade cooperation (English) See More +||DEC 01, 2005||34769||Publication|
|Agricultural trade reform and the Doha development agenda (English) See More +||NOV 01, 2005||34206||Publication|
|China in the world trade organization : antidumping and safeguards (English) See More +||JAN 01, 2004||77463||Journal Article|
|The World Bank economic review 18 (1) (English) See More +||JAN 01, 2004||29663||Publication|
|Agriculture in the Doha Agenda (English) See More +||APR 30, 2003||WPS3009||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Initial conditions and incentives for Arab economic integration : can the European Community's success be emulated? (English) See More +||OCT 31, 2002||WPS2921||Policy Research Working Paper|
|The economic effects of minimum import prices : with an application to Uruguay (English) See More +||MAY 31, 1992||WPS903||Policy Research Working Paper|
|The Uruguay Round : services in the world economy (English) See More +||APR 30, 1990||8609||Publication|
|Antidumping regulations or procartel law? : the European Community chemical cases (English) See More +||APR 30, 1990||WPS397||Policy Research Working Paper|
|The effects of industrial countries' policies on developing countries (English) See More +||JUN 30, 1989||8024||Publication|
|The Uruguay negotiations on subsidies and countervailing measures : past and future constraints (English) See More +||APR 30, 1989||WPS186||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Effects of European VERs on Japanese autos (English) See More +||JUN 30, 1988||WPS21||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Antidumping laws and developing countries (English) See More +||JUN 30, 1988||WPS16||Policy Research Working Paper|