Documents & Reports

Caroline Louise Freund

Lead Economist

CAROLINE FREUND is a Lead Economist in the International Trade Team, Development Research Group. She obtained a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University. Before joining the World Bank, she was an Economist in the International Finance Division of the Federal Reserve Board. She is currently doing research on regional integration, trade and growth, trade costs, and competitiveness.

The author's works below are drawn from the World Bank's institutional archives.

Works by this author


  

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Exporter behavior, country size and stage of development : evidence from the exporter dynamics database (English)

This paper presents new data on the micro structure of the export sector for 45 countries and studies how exporter behavior varies with country size and stage of development. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7452 OCT 21, 2015

Fernandes,Ana Margarida; Freund,Caroline; Pierola Castro,Martha D. Disclosed

Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa (English)

Traditional discussions of export performance are typically cast in terms of countries and sectors, which has a comparative advantage, what should be protected, and so on. ... See More +

Brief 100036 OCT 01, 2015

Jaud,Melise; Freund,Caroline Disclosed

Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa (English)

While other emerging regions were thriving, MENA's aggregate export performance over the past two decades has been consistently weak. Using detailed firm-level export data from Customs administrations, this report explains why. ... See More +

Publication 95681 APR 07, 2015

Freund,Caroline; Jaud,Melise French, Arabic Disclosed

Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa (Arabic)

While other emerging regions were thriving, MENA's aggregate export performance over the past two decades has been consistently weak. Using detailed firm-level export data from Customs administrations, this report explains why. ... See More +

Publication 95681 JAN 01, 2015

Freund,Caroline; Jaud,Melise English, French Disclosed

Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa : En quête de champions : promouvoir les exportations au moyen-orient et en Afrique du Nord (French)

While other emerging regions were thriving, MENA's aggregate export performance over the past two decades has been consistently weak. Using detailed firm-level export data from Customs administrations, this report explains why. ... See More +

Publication 95681 JAN 01, 2015

Freund,Caroline; Jaud,Melise English, Arabic Disclosed

Which firms create the most jobs in developing countries ? evidence from Tunisia (English)

This paper examines private sector job creation in Tunisia over the period 1996-2010 using a unique database containing information on all registered private enterprises, including self-employment. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7068 OCT 01, 2014

Rijkers, Bob; Arouri, Hassen; Freund, Caroline; Nucifora, Antonio Disclosed

Deals and delays : firm-level evidence on corruption and policy implementation times (English)

This paper examines whether demands for bribes for particular government services are associated with expedited or delayed policy implementation. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6949 JUN 01, 2014

Freund, Caroline; Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Rijkers, Bob Disclosed

Episodes of unemployment reduction in rich, middle-income, and transition economies (English)

This paper studies the incidence and determinants of episodes of drastic unemployment reduction, defined as swift, substantial, and sustained declines in unemployment. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6891 MAY 01, 2014

Freund, Caroline; Rijkers, Bob Disclosed

All in the family : state capture in Tunisia (English)

Understanding state-business relationships and how they have shaped the institutional architecture of countries in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) is crucial for the identification of systemic vulnerabilities and reform priorities. ... See More +

Brief 90151 MAY 01, 2014

Rijkers, Bob; Freund, Caroline; Nucifora, Antonio Disclosed

All in the family : state capture in Tunisia (English)

This paper examines the relationship between regulation and the business interests of President Ben Ali and his family, using firm-level data from Tunisia for 1994-2010. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6810 MAR 01, 2014

Rijkers, Bob; Freund, Caroline; Nucifora, Antonio Disclosed

The Middle East and North Africa : a year in transition (English)

This note is based on report entitled Looking Ahead after a Year in Transition that was issued by the Chief Economist’s office of the Middle East and North Africa region of the World Bank. ... See More +

Brief 75214 DEC 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Ianchovichina, Elena; Wood, Christina; Mottaghi, Lili Disclosed

Export superstars (English)

This paper shows that the top 1 percent of exporters critically shape trade patterns, using firm-level data from 32 countries. In particular, variation in average firm size (the intensive margin) explains over two thirds of the variation in the sector distribution of exports across countries, the remaining share is explained by variation in the number of firms (the extensive margin). ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6222 OCT 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse Disclosed

Exporter dynamics database (English)

This paper introduces the Exporter Dynamics Database. The database includes exporter characteristics and measures of exporter growth based on firm-level customs information from 38 developing and seven developed countries, primarily for the period between 2003 and 2010. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6229 OCT 01, 2012

Cebeci, Tolga; Fernandes, Ana M.; Freund, Caroline; Pierola, Martha Denisse Disclosed

Looking ahead after a year in transition (English)

This edtion of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economic developments and prospects reports focuses on the economic developments and short-term outlook for four economies, Tunisia, Egypt, the Republic of Yemen and Libya. ... See More +

Publication 74376 OCT 01, 2012

Ianchovichina, Elena; Freund, Caroline Disclosed

MENA regional economic update (English)

Regional events continue to affect the short-term economic prospects in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Brief 68488 MAY 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Ianchovichina, Elena Disclosed

World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 2) : Enabling employment miracles (English)

Political uncertainties in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continue to affect the short term economic prospects in the region, while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Working Paper 68238 APR 01, 2012

Freund,Caroline; Ianchovichina,Elena Disclosed

World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update : Executive summary (Arabic)

Political uncertainties in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continue to affect the short term economic prospects in the region, while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Working Paper 68238 APR 01, 2012

Freund,Caroline; Ianchovichina,Elena Disclosed

World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update : Resume executif (French)

Political uncertainties in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continue to affect the short term economic prospects in the region, while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Working Paper 68238 APR 01, 2012

Freund,Caroline; Ianchovichina,Elena Disclosed

Infrastructure and employment creation in the Middle East and North Africa (English)

The report estimates Middle East and North Africa's (MENA's) infrastructure investment and maintenance needs through 2020 at 106 billion dollars per year or 6.9 percent of the annual regional gross domestic product (GDP). ... See More +

Brief 67730 JAN 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Ianchovichina, Elena Disclosed

The World Bank economic review 25 (3) (English)

This paper is organized in following headings: what constrains Africa's exports?; does the internet reduce corruption? evidence from United States and across countries; do labor statistics depend on how and to whom the questions are asked? ... See More +

Publication 80518 OCT 01, 2011

Freund, Caroline; Rocha, Nadia; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Selaya, Pablo; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Dillon, Andrew; Serneels, Pieter; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa; de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher; Chavis, Larry W.; Gine, Xavier; Mansuri, Ghazala; Picon, Mario; Lederman, Daniel; Rodriguez-Clare, Andres; Xu, Daniel Yi Disclosed

Title Document Date Report No. Document Type Also available in
Exporter behavior, country size and stage of development : evidence from the exporter dynamics database (English)
See More +
OCT 21, 2015 WPS7452 Policy Research Working Paper
Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2015 100036 Brief
Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
See More +
APR 07, 2015 95681 Publication French, Arabic
Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa (Arabic)
See More +
JAN 01, 2015 95681 Publication English, French
Champions wanted : promoting exports in the Middle East and North Africa : En quête de champions : promouvoir les exportations au moyen-orient et en Afrique du Nord (French)
See More +
JAN 01, 2015 95681 Publication English, Arabic
Which firms create the most jobs in developing countries ? evidence from Tunisia (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2014 WPS7068 Policy Research Working Paper
Deals and delays : firm-level evidence on corruption and policy implementation times (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2014 WPS6949 Policy Research Working Paper
Episodes of unemployment reduction in rich, middle-income, and transition economies (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2014 WPS6891 Policy Research Working Paper
All in the family : state capture in Tunisia (English)
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MAY 01, 2014 90151 Brief
All in the family : state capture in Tunisia (English)
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MAR 01, 2014 WPS6810 Policy Research Working Paper
The Middle East and North Africa : a year in transition (English)
See More +
DEC 01, 2012 75214 Brief
Export superstars (English)
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OCT 01, 2012 WPS6222 Policy Research Working Paper
Exporter dynamics database (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2012 WPS6229 Policy Research Working Paper
Looking ahead after a year in transition (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2012 74376 Publication
MENA regional economic update (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2012 68488 Brief
World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 2) : Enabling employment miracles (English)
See More +
APR 01, 2012 68238 Working Paper
World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update : Executive summary (Arabic)
See More +
APR 01, 2012 68238 Working Paper
World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update : Resume executif (French)
See More +
APR 01, 2012 68238 Working Paper
Infrastructure and employment creation in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2012 67730 Brief
The World Bank economic review 25 (3) (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2011 80518 Publication