Documents & Reports

Caroline Louise Freund

Lead Economist

CAROLINE FREUND is a Lead Economist in the International Trade Team, Development Research Group. She obtained a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University. Before joining the World Bank, she was an Economist in the International Finance Division of the Federal Reserve Board. She is currently doing research on regional integration, trade and growth, trade costs, and competitiveness.

The author's works below are drawn from the World Bank's institutional archives.

Works by this author


  

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Which firms create the most jobs in developing countries ? evidence from Tunisia (English)

This paper examines private sector job creation in Tunisia over the period 1996-2010 using a unique database containing information on all registered private enterprises, including self-employment. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7068 OCT 01, 2014

Rijkers, Bob; Arouri, Hassen; Freund, Caroline; Nucifora, Antonio

Deals and delays : firm-level evidence on corruption and policy implementation times (English)

This paper examines whether demands for bribes for particular government services are associated with expedited or delayed policy implementation. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6949 JUN 01, 2014

Freund, Caroline; Hallward-Driemeier, Mary; Rijkers, Bob

Episodes of unemployment reduction in rich, middle-income, and transition economies (English)

This paper studies the incidence and determinants of episodes of drastic unemployment reduction, defined as swift, substantial, and sustained declines in unemployment. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6891 MAY 01, 2014

Freund, Caroline; Rijkers, Bob

All in the family : state capture in Tunisia (English)

This paper examines the relationship between regulation and the business interests of President Ben Ali and his family, using firm-level data from Tunisia for 1994-2010. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6810 MAR 01, 2014

Rijkers, Bob; Freund, Caroline; Nucifora, Antonio

Export superstars (English)

This paper shows that the top 1 percent of exporters critically shape trade patterns, using firm-level data from 32 countries. In particular, variation in average firm size (the intensive margin) explains over two thirds of the variation in the sector distribution of exports across countries, the remaining share is explained by variation in the number of firms (the extensive margin). ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6222 OCT 01, 2012

Pierola, Martha Denisse; Freund, Caroline

Exporter dynamics database (English)

This paper introduces the Exporter Dynamics Database. The database includes exporter characteristics and measures of exporter growth based on firm-level customs information from 38 developing and seven developed countries, primarily for the period between 2003 and 2010. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6229 OCT 01, 2012

Fernandes, Ana M.; Cebeci, Tolga; Pierola, Martha Denisse; Freund, Caroline

Looking ahead after a year in transition (English)

This edtion of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economic developments and prospects reports focuses on the economic developments and short-term outlook for four economies, Tunisia, Egypt, the Republic of Yemen and Libya. ... See More +

Publication 74376 OCT 01, 2012

Ianchovichina, Elena; Freund, Caroline

MENA regional economic update (English)

Regional events continue to affect the short-term economic prospects in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Brief 68488 MAY 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Ianchovichina, Elena

World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 2 of 2) : Enabling employment miracles (English)

Political uncertainties in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continue to affect the short term economic prospects in the region, while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Working Paper 68238 APR 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Ianchovichina, Elena

World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 1 of 2) : Executive summary (Arabic)

Political uncertainties in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continue to affect the short term economic prospects in the region, while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Working Paper 68238 APR 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Ianchovichina, Elena French

World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 1 of 2) : Resume executif (French)

Political uncertainties in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) continue to affect the short term economic prospects in the region, while major developments in the global economy over the past six months have put the region on a two-track growth path for 2012. ... See More +

Working Paper 68238 APR 01, 2012

Freund, Caroline; Ianchovichina, Elena Arabic

Infrastructure and employment creation in the Middle East and North Africa (English)

The report estimates Middle East and North Africa's (MENA's) infrastructure investment and maintenance needs through 2020 at 106 billion dollars per year or 6.9 percent of the annual regional gross domestic product (GDP). ... See More +

Brief 67730 JAN 01, 2012

Ianchovichina, Elena; Freund, Caroline

The World Bank economic review 25 (3) (English)

This paper is organized in following headings: what constrains Africa's exports?; does the internet reduce corruption? evidence from United States and across countries; do labor statistics depend on how and to whom the questions are asked? ... See More +

Publication 80518 OCT 01, 2011

Freund, Caroline; Rocha, Nadia; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Selaya, Pablo; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Dillon, Andrew; Serneels, Pieter; Klapper, Leora F.; Love, Inessa; de Mel, Suresh; McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher; Chavis, Larry W.; Gine, Xavier; Mansuri, Ghazala; Picon, Mario; Lederman, Daniel; Rodriguez-Clare, Andres; Xu, Daniel Yi

Investing for growth and jobs (English)

This edtion of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) economic developments and prospects reports focuses foresees an improvement compared to its last forecast in May 2011. ... See More +

Publication 75725 SEP 01, 2011

Ianchovichina, Elena; Freund, Caroline

The trade performance of the Middle East and North Africa (English)

This paper characterizes the trade performance of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) over the past 15 years. Cross-section results show that MENA's exports to the outside world were only one third of their potential in recent years, after controlling for the standard determinants of trade. ... See More +

Working Paper (Numbered Series) 64339 JUL 01, 2011

Behar, Alberto; Freund, Caroline

What constrains Africa's exports? (English)

Africa's share of global exports has dropped by 50 percent over the last three decades. To stem this decline, aid for trade to the region has increased rapidly in recent years. ... See More +

Journal Article 81273 MAY 30, 2011

Freund, Caroline; Rocha, Nadia

Trade watch first quarter 2011 (English)

Trade Watch is a quarterly note that follows international trade flows from a global perspective. It contains up-to-date trade data from an array of sources , covering issues such as import and export growth at national, regional and industry levels, exchange rate fluctuations and quantity and price decomposition of trade. ... See More +

Newsletter 63309 JAN 01, 2011

Neagu, Ileana Cristina; Freund, Caroline

Trade watch third quarter 2010 (Vol. 1 of 2) : Main report (English)

Trade watch is a quarterly note that follows international trade flows from a global perspective. It contains up-to-date trade data from an array of sources along with an analysis from Caroline Freund and Ileana Cristina Neagu, international trade specialists in the Development Economics Research Group, covering issues such as import and export growth at national, regional and industry levels, exchange rate fluctuations and quantity and price decomposition of trade. ... See More +

Newsletter 59554 DEC 31, 2010

Neagu, Ileana Cristina; Freund, Caroline

Trade watch third quarter 2010 (Vol. 2 of 2) : Data sheet (English)

Trade watch is a quarterly note that follows international trade flows from a global perspective. It contains up-to-date trade data from an array of sources along with an analysis from Caroline Freund and Ileana Cristina Neagu, international trade specialists in the Development Economics Research Group, covering issues such as import and export growth at national, regional and industry levels, exchange rate fluctuations and quantity and price decomposition of trade. ... See More +

Newsletter 59554 DEC 31, 2010

Neagu, Ileana Cristina; Freund, Caroline

Export entrepreneurs : evidence from Peru (English)

This paper examines firm entry and survival in exporting, and in products and markets not previously served by any domestic exporters. The authors use data on the nontraditional agriculture sector in Peru, which grew seven-fold from 1994 to 2007. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5407 AUG 01, 2010

Pierola, Martha Denisse; Freund, Caroline

Title Document Date Report No. Document Type Also available in
Which firms create the most jobs in developing countries ? evidence from Tunisia (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2014 WPS7068 Policy Research Working Paper
Deals and delays : firm-level evidence on corruption and policy implementation times (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2014 WPS6949 Policy Research Working Paper
Episodes of unemployment reduction in rich, middle-income, and transition economies (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2014 WPS6891 Policy Research Working Paper
All in the family : state capture in Tunisia (English)
See More +
MAR 01, 2014 WPS6810 Policy Research Working Paper
Export superstars (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2012 WPS6222 Policy Research Working Paper
Exporter dynamics database (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2012 WPS6229 Policy Research Working Paper
Looking ahead after a year in transition (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2012 74376 Publication
MENA regional economic update (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2012 68488 Brief
World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 2 of 2) : Enabling employment miracles (English)
See More +
APR 01, 2012 68238 Working Paper
World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 1 of 2) : Executive summary (Arabic)
See More +
APR 01, 2012 68238 Working Paper French
World Bank Middle East and North Africa region : a regional economic update (Vol. 1 of 2) : Resume executif (French)
See More +
APR 01, 2012 68238 Working Paper Arabic
Infrastructure and employment creation in the Middle East and North Africa (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2012 67730 Brief
The World Bank economic review 25 (3) (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2011 80518 Publication
Investing for growth and jobs (English)
See More +
SEP 01, 2011 75725 Publication
The trade performance of the Middle East and North Africa (English)
See More +
JUL 01, 2011 64339 Working Paper (Numbered Series)
What constrains Africa's exports? (English)
See More +
MAY 30, 2011 81273 Journal Article
Trade watch first quarter 2011 (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2011 63309 Newsletter
Trade watch third quarter 2010 (Vol. 1 of 2) : Main report (English)
See More +
DEC 31, 2010 59554 Newsletter
Trade watch third quarter 2010 (Vol. 2 of 2) : Data sheet (English)
See More +
DEC 31, 2010 59554 Newsletter
Export entrepreneurs : evidence from Peru (English)
See More +
AUG 01, 2010 WPS5407 Policy Research Working Paper