The Soviet economic decline. William Easterly and Stanley Fischer Contingent valuation and actual behavior: predicting connections to new water systems in the State of Kerala, India. ... See More + Charles C. Griffin, John Briscoe, Bhanwar Singh, Radhika Ramasubban, and Ramesh Bhatia Political influence on the central bank: international evidence. Alex Cukierman and Steven B. Webb Pioneers for profit: St. Petersburg entrepreneurs in services. Martha de Melo, Gur Ofer, and Olga Sandler Apprenticeship contracts, small enterprises, and credit markets in Ghana. Ann D. Velenchik Inequality and growth reconsidered: lessons from East Asia. Nancy Birdsall, David Ross, and Richard Sabot Another look at the East Asian Miracle. Gustav Ranis Cumulative indexes of authors and titles for Volume 9 See Less -
Publication 15176 SEP 30, 1995
Easterly, William; Fischer, Stanley; Griffin, Charles C.; Briscoe, John; Singh, Bhanwar; Ramasubban, Radhika; Bhatia, Ramesh; Cukierman, Alex; Webb, Steven B.; de Melo, Martha; Ofer, Gur; Sander, Olga; Velenchik, Ann D.; Birdsall, Nancy; Ross, David; Sabot, Richard; Ranis, Gustav
Domestic labor market outcomes influence the direction and magnitude of the flow of international migration. When wages are low and jobs are scarce, workers tend to migrate to environments where jobs are available at higher wages. ... See More + But as labor demand grows, a labor-exporting country may become a net labor importer. Such a "migration transition" - already much in evidence in East and Southeast Asian countries and beginning for skilled workers in India - is analogous to the demographic transition. The process of political economy described by the authors affects the level and growth of wages and of formal sector emmployment. So it is important for policymakers concerned about migration to high-income countries to take it into account. An efficient, flexible, responsive labor market contributes to growth by creating an appropriate economic environment. In this respect, labor policy is like macroeconomic and trade policy. Unlike the accumulation of physical and human capital and technical progress, a well-functioning labor market is not itself a source of economic growth. Yet labor market pathologies, like macroeconomic mismanagement, can be extremely costly, severely constraining growth of output and employment and increasing inequality. Similarly, failure to adequately address the labor-market aspects of policy reform can result in the failure of other dimensions of reform. The smooth functioning of the labor market feeds on itself, enhancing the credibility of both workers and the elite. Conversely, poor labor market performance can also be self-reinforcing. Attempts to reform the labor market feeds on itself, enhancing the credibility of both workers and the elite. The payoff on labor reform can be high for both groups. The challenge is to find mechanisms whereby the credibility of both groups can be bolstered. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS1435 MAR 31, 1995
Banerji, Arup; Campos, J. Edgardo; Sabot, Richard H.
This book is designed to address two underlying questions. To what degree is education a good investment that increases labor productivity and contributes to economic growth? ... See More + And to what extent does educational expansion yield the social advantage of reducing various dimensions of economic inequality? In pursuing these questions, the authors chose to exploit the East African "natural experiment" in secondary education. Kenya and Tanzania are similar in GNP per capita and in many other relevant aspects, but they have differed markedly in their public policy toward the provision of secondary education and thus in educational attainment of the labor force. When the relationship between secondary enrollment and GNP per capita is graphed, Kenya is roughly at the level predicted for its income level, whereas Tanzania is well below the line. Surveys were designed to investigate the consequences for the labor market of the contrasting education policy regimes and thereby to assess the efficacy of the policies. The authors' use of comparable macroeconomic data permits a more detailed quantitative analysis allowing for a deeper examination of the consequences of educational expansion. Although cautious in assessing the results, the authors' conclusions support those who have placed their faith in educational investment. The findings provide strong backing for the human capital paradigm : educational expansion is shown to raise labor productivity. See Less -
Publication 8985 JUL 31, 1990
Knight, John B.; Sabot, Richard H.
This paper argues that the labor transfer process outlined by the Lewis model (1954) can give rise to surplus labour - in the sense than the marginal product of labour is less that the wage - in the public part of the modern sector and that this may deprive the modern sector of its dynamism. ... See More + Moreover, creating sheltered employment tends to be self-perpetuating. It creates and consolidates vested interests that seek to perpetuate the protected jobs. In the inverse of the Lewis model, the extent of surplus labour increases, rather than diminishes, over time. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS133 NOV 30, 1988
Gelb, Alan; Sabot, Richard H.; Knight, John B.
An overview is provided of a research project comparing the restrictive policy for secondary education in Tanzania with the more expansionist policy in Kenya. ... See More + This "natural experiment" is exploited, by means of specially designed urban labor market surveys, to examine the relationship between secondary education and its expansion, labor productivity, the structure and inequality of pay, educational access and intergenerational mobility. The two policy regimes are evaluated and more general policy implications are drawn out. See Less -
Working Paper (Numbered Series) EDT48 DEC 31, 1986
Knight, J. B; Sabot, Richard H
This paper argues that the comparative R2 procedure is often less satisfactory for decomposing inequality than is simulation with the estimated "true" relation determining the distribution of interest. ... See More + Therefore it concludes that the latter is often a preferred procedure. See Less -
Journal Article REP380 AUG 31, 1983
Behrman, Jere R.; Knight, John B.; Sabot, Richard H.
The occupational structure of wages is generally more compressed in high than in low income countries. The role of non-market forces in determining the structure of wages is of interest for reasons of allocative efficiency as well as for distributional concerns. ... See More + This paper considers how wage differentials may be generated between the public and private sectors of a developing economy. Data from a 1971 household survey of the Tanzanian urban wage labor force are used to determine the pattern of wage differences across employer groups. After standardizing by worker characteristics, public sector employees are found to have earned a substantial wage premium over workers employed in the private sector. The non-market character of these differentials is examined in light of a number of hypotheses on public sector wage determination. See Less -
Journal Article REP261 JAN 31, 1983
Lindauer, D.; Sabot, R.
The social efficiency of labor markets in developing countries in the allocation of the supply of labor time and skills is assessed. Conventionally, open urban unemployment and disguised unemployment in agriculture have been considered symptoms of the poor performance, but the survey indicates that this relationship is not a casual one. ... See More + The shifts of the labor force in response to shifts in demand have been impressive; unemployment and other types of market malfunctions are less serious misallocations than they appear. There seems to be no reason to presume that poverty is a manifestation of labor market failure, although links between labor market pathologies and the distribution of income do exist. Numerous references. See Less -
Journal Article REP85 JAN 31, 1978
Berry, A.; Sabot, R.
|Title||Document Date||Report No.||Document Type||Also available in|
|The World Bank economic review 9(3) (English) See More +||SEP 30, 1995||15176||Publication|
|The political economy of formal sector pay and employment in developing countries (English) See More +||MAR 31, 1995||WPS1435||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Education, productivity, and inequality : the East African natural experiment (English) See More +||JUL 31, 1990||8985||Publication|
|Lewis through a looking glass : public sector employment, rent-seeking, and economic growth (English) See More +||NOV 30, 1988||WPS133||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Overview of educational expansion, productivity and inequality : a comparative analysis of the East African natural experiment (English) See More +||DEC 31, 1986||EDT48||Working Paper (Numbered Series)|
|A simulation alternative to the comparative R2 approach to decomposing inequality (English) See More +||AUG 31, 1983||REP380||Journal Article|
|The public-private wage differential in a poor urban economy : The public / private wage differential in a poor urban economy (English) See More +||JAN 31, 1983||REP261||Journal Article|
|Labor market performance in developing countries - a survey (English) See More +||JAN 31, 1978||REP85||Journal Article|