Improving access to affordable and reliable energy services for cooking is essential for developing countries in reducing adverse human health and environmental impacts hitherto caused by burning of traditional biomass. ... See More + This paper reviews empirical studies that analyze choices of fuel and adoption of improved stoves for cooking in countries where biomass is still the predominant cooking fuel. The review highlights the wide range of factors that influence households cooking fuel choices and adoption of improved stoves, including socioeconomic (access and availability, collection costs and fuel prices, household income, education and awareness), behavioral (food tastes, lifestyle), and cultural and external factors (indoor air pollution, government policies). The paper also summarizes the evidence on the significant adverse health impacts from exposure to indoor smoke, especially among women and young children. In low-income households, perceived health benefits of adopting improved stoves and financial benefits from fuel savings tend to be outweighed by the costs of improved stoves, even after accounting for the opportunity cost of time spent collecting biomass fuel. The paper identifies knowledge and evidence gaps on the success of policies and programs designed to scale up the adoption of improved cookstoves. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6903 JUN 01, 2014
Malla, Sunil; Timilsina, Govinda R
Improvement of energy efficiency is one of the main options to reduce energy demand and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Ukraine. However, large-scale deployment of energy efficient technologies has been constrained by several financial, technical, information, behavioral, and institutional barriers. ... See More + This study assesses these barriers through a survey of 500 industrial and commercial firms throughout Ukraine. The results from the survey were used in a cumulative multi-logit model to understand the importance of the barriers. The analysis shows that financial barriers caused by high upfront costs of energy efficient technologies, higher costs of finance, and higher opportunity costs of energy efficiency investment are key barriers to the adoption of energy efficiency measures in Ukraine. Institutional barriers particularly lack government policies, which also contributes to the slow adoption of energy efficient technologies in the country. The results suggest targeted policy and credit enhancements could help trigger adoption of energy efficient measures. The empirical analysis shows strong inter-linkages among the barriers and finds heterogeneity between industrial and commercial sectors on the realization of the barriers. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6920 JUN 01, 2014
Hochman, Gal; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Morocco has set an ambitious target of supplying 42 percent of electricity through renewable sources, 14 percent each through hydro, wind, and solar, by 2020. ... See More + To analyze the economic and environmental implications of implementing this target, this study uses a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with foresight that includes explicit representation of various electricity generation technologies. Two types of policy instruments, a production subsidy financed through fossil fuel taxation and a renewable energy mandate financed through increased electricity prices, have been considered to attract investment in renewable energy. The study shows that meeting the renewable target would achieve up to 15 percent reduction of national greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 compared with a situation in the absence of the target, or the baseline. However, meeting the target would decrease household consumption of goods and services, thereby worsening household welfare. The study also shows that the renewable production subsidy financed through fossil fuel taxation is superior to the mandate policy to meet the renewable energy target in Morocco, as the former would cause a lower loss in economic welfare and a larger reduction of greenhouse gas emissions than the latter. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6940 JUN 01, 2014
Timilsina, Govinda R.; Landis, Florian
Transaction costs are major challenge to moving forward toward low-carbon economic growth, as new technologies or policies tend to have higher transaction costs compared with those in the business as usual situation. ... See More + However, neither a well-developed theoretical foundation nor a consensus interpretation is available for those transaction costs in the existing literature. The definitions and therefore the estimations of transaction costs vary across existing studies. The wide variations in the estimates could be attributed to several factors such as the very definitions and scope of transaction costs considered in the studies, the methodology for quantifying these costs, the type and size of low-carbon technologies, and complexities involved in the transactions. Nevertheless, the existing literature converges on addressing market failures, such as lack of information, in developing regulatory and institutional capacity to enhance private sector confidence in energy efficiency business as a key means to help reduce the transaction costs of low-carbon technologies. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6565 AUG 01, 2013
Mansoz, Mathilde; Neij, Lena; Timilsina, Govinda R; Mundaca, Luis
Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of entire petroleum despite the availability of a surplus of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia, a country in Sub-Saharan Africa, has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. ... See More + But, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been fully investigated yet. Using an empirical model this study analyzes the economics of meeting the biodiesel mandate through soybean feedstock. The study finds that meeting the biodiesel mandate with biodiesel from soybeans would reduce social welfare because the country's soybean imports would cost more than the expected reduction in petroleum imports. However, if Zambia increases its domestic soybean supply along with its capacity to convert soybean to biodiesel, as well as oil yield, soybean based biodiesel is likely to be welfare-beneficial, even if biodiesel prices are above diesel prices. The study also finds that under current market prices and transportation costs and constraints, the same amount of biodiesel can be produced most cost-effectively with a tax exemption. A blend mandate would be less cost effective, while a biodiesel production subsidy represents the least efficient policy option. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6498 JUN 01, 2013
Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.; de Gorter, Harry
With increased global interest in biofuels, Zambia, a Sub-Saharan African country that entirely depends on imports for its petroleum supply, is planning to implement blending mandates for biofuels. ... See More + But, a large number of issues -- including production costs of biofuels, land requirements to meet the mandates, and environmental benefits -- have not yet been explored. This study aims to contribute in filling this gap. It finds that depending on feedstock type, costs of ethanol production range from US$0.360 a liter to US$0.680 a liter while the costs for biodiesel production range from US$0.612 a liter to US$0.952 a liter. Even if lower energy contents of biofuels are taken into account, the analysis shows that biofuels are cheaper than their petroleum counterparts. Considering the cost advantage of these biofuels over petroleum products and the availability of surplus agricultural land, Zambia is likely to benefit from the development of a biofuel industry. Biofuels is expected to reduce Zambia's petroleum import bill, which currently stands at more than US$700 million, enhance food security by providing incentives to increase yields, and increase affordability and accessibility to modern energy in the country where 77 percent of the population still lacks access to modern energy. It could also stimulate rural employment and development. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6499 JUN 01, 2013
Sinkala, Thomson; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Ekanayake, Indira J.
Mali, a landlocked West African nation at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, has introduced a program to produce biodiesel using jatropha curcas, a non-edible shrub widely available throughout the country by farmers for generations as a living fence for their gardens. ... See More + The aim of the program is to partially substitute diesel, which is entirely supplied through imports, with domestic biodiesel produced from a feedstock that does not have any commercial value otherwise and thus has zero opportunity cost. This paper uses a computable general equilibrium model to investigate economy-wide and distributional impacts of large-scale jatropha production on different types of lands, and conversion of jatropha oil to biodiesel for domestic consumption. It assesses impacts on agricultural and other commodity markets, resource and factor markets, and international trade. The results are fed into a detailed household survey-based micro-simulation model to assess impacts on poverty and income distribution. The study finds that the expansion of jatropha farming would be beneficial in terms of both macroeconomic and distributional impacts as long as idle lands, which have been neither used for agriculture nor protected as forests, are utilized. However, if jatropha plantation is carried out on existing agriculture lands, the economy-wide impacts would be negative although it would still help reduce rural poverty. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6500 JUN 01, 2013
Boccanfuso, Dorothee; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Savard, Luc; Coulibaly, Massa
A global computable general equilibrium model is used to analyze the economic impacts of rising oil prices with endogenously determined availability of biofuels to mitigate those impacts. ... See More + The negative effects on the global economy are comparable to those found in other studies, but the impacts are unevenly distributed across countries/regions or sectors. The agricultural sectors of high-income countries, which are relatively energy intensive, would suffer more from rising oil prices than would those in lower-income countries, whereas the reverse is true for the impacts across manufacturing sectors. The impacts are especially strong for oil importers with relatively energy-intensive manufacturing and trade, such as India and China. Although the availability of biofuels does mitigate some of the negative impacts of rising oil prices, the benefit is small because the capacity of biofuels to economically substitute for fossil fuels on a large scale remains limited. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6515 JUN 01, 2013
Timilsina, Govinda R.
This paper reviews the literature on the potential biophysical and economic impacts of climate change in the Himalayas. Existing observations indicate that the temperature is rising at a higher rate in Nepal and Chinese regions of the Himalayas compared with rest of the Himalayas. ... See More + A declining trend of monsoon in the western Indian Himalayas and an increasing trend in the eastern Indian Himalayas have been observed, whereas increasing precipitation and stream flow in many parts of Tibetan Plateau are noted. Glaciers in both the eastern and western Himalayas are mostly retreating, but the majority of the glaciers in Karakorum are either stable or advancing slowly. Expansion of glacier lakes is reported, with the highest rate in Nepal and Bhutan. Most literature predicts increases in temperature and monsoon precipitations and decreases in winter precipitations in the future thereby leading to monsoon flooding and increased sediments in stream flow. Available hydrological simulations indicate reduced rainfall and shrinkage of glacier thereby leading to shortage of water supply for power generation and irrigation in winter particularly in highly glaciated basins. Projected economic impacts of glacial lake outburst floods can be substantial on the developed river basin with infrastructures and population centers. However, there is a clear gap in knowledge of economic impacts of climate change in the Himalayas. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6516 JUN 01, 2013
Timilsina, Govinda R.; Acharya, Kumud; Gautam, Mahesh R.
The lack of growth in the Brazilian sugarcane-ethanol complex since the 2008 financial crisis has been blamed on policies: lower mandate, holding gasoline prices below world levels, high fuel taxes, and inadequate fuel tax exemptions for ethanol. ... See More + This paper develops an empirical model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex to analyze the impacts of these policies. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique such that each policy, in theory, has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. The results indicate two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry do otherwise in reality: low gasoline taxes and high anhydrous tax exemptions lower ethanol prices. But higher mandates, hydrous ethanol tax exemptions, and gasoline prices had the expected impact of increasing ethanol and sugar prices. Eliminating Brazilian ethanol tax exemptions and mandates reduces ethanol prices by 21 percent. Observed changes in prices are explained by outward shifts in fuel transportation and sugar export demand curves, and bad weather reducing sugarcane supply. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6524 JUN 01, 2013
de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Kliauga, Erika M.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Using an empirical model, this study provides some insights into the functioning of the oilseed-biodiesel-diesel market complex in a large country that determines the biodiesel price, reflecting market equilibrium changes resulting from volatility in the crude oil price. ... See More + Oilseed crushing produces joint products -- oil and meal -- and this weakens the link between the biodiesel and oilseed feedstock prices. Higher crude oil prices increase biodiesel prices if biofuel benefits from a fuel tax exemption, but lower them with a blending mandate (minimum biofuel content requirement in marketed fuel). When both canola and soybeans are used to produce biodiesel, an increase in the crude oil price leads to higher canola prices, but the effect on soybean prices is ambiguous and depends on relative elasticities of meal demand and canola supply because canola produces more oil than soybeans. An oil price shock with a blending mandate results in a smaller change in oilseed prices compared with a fuel tax exemption. Jumps in world crude oil prices have differential impacts on commodity prices and welfare in developing countries, depending on which policy determines the biodiesel price in OECD countries. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6453 MAY 01, 2013
Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.; de Gorter, Harry
This study estimates the impact on jobs from power transmission lines constructed by Power links Transmission Limited (PTL), a joint venture company supported by IFC, which helped bring power from a Bhutanese hydropower plant to India. ... See More + The project had a significant development impact in both India and Bhutan. Unlike most studies that focus on jobs created through construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) (category one jobs) of power projects, this study looks at employment effects more comprehensively by including estimates for second-order growth effects (category two jobs), i.e. those jobs that are created as the increase in power supply brought by PTL helps firms expand output and hence create more jobs. The study uses a mix of methodologies including Input Output models, econometric time series models and step-by-step estimation to determine the different types of employment effects. It finds that indirect and induced jobs created through an investment in power are much larger than the number of direct jobs created. But the most significant employment effect is from second-order growth (category two jobs that were created because the increased power supply relieved a key constraint for firms in India.) The project also had a broader poverty-reduction impact because the transmission lines were constructed through some of the poorest states in India. In addition, a large proportion of induced jobs were in the agricultural sector, creating employment and income for the rural low-skilled population. See Less -
Brief 81999 JAN 01, 2013
Datta, Namita; Timilsina, Govinda; Khanna, Mahima; Massuet, Ferran Casadevall
China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies including biofuels. ... See More + The 2010 biofuel targets were met and even surpassed except for non-grain fuel ethanol; however, there is debate on whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides a resource and technological assessment of biofuel feedstocks, compares biofuel production costs from various feddstocks and technologies, and evaluates policies introduced in the country for the development of biofuels. The paper also presents the projections on the production of biofuels under various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy its non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from the technology perspective. But it will probably fall far short of this target without additional fiscal incentives as production costs of non-grain feedstock based biofuels are expected to remain relatively high. By contrast, the 2020 target of biodiesel production has a high probability of being achieved because the target itself is relatively small. With additional support policies, it could develop even further. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6243 OCT 01, 2012
Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shiyan, Chang; Lili, Zhao; Xiliang, Zhang
In 2003 International Finance Corporation (IFC) committed a loan of US $75 million to Powerlinks Transmission Limited (PTL) a joint venture company, to construct power transmission lines that helped evacuate hydropower from Bhutan to a number of States in north and east India. ... See More + Unlike most studies which tend to focus on jobs created through construction and O&M (category one jobs) of power projects, this study looks at employment effects more comprehensively and also estimates category two jobs that are created- i.e. those jobs that are created as the increase in power supply brought by PTL helps firms expand their output and hence create more jobs. We also specifically focused on the impact of increased reliability in power supply through reduced power outages, on job creation. The purpose of the transmission system is to expand the capacity of the Indian grid, connecting the power surplus regions of east and northeast India with the power deficit region of north India. PTL commenced construction in November 2003 and achieved commercial operation in 2006. This is the first private sector transmission project in India as well as in a developing country in Asia. The objective of this study is to assess the employment effects of the Power links project in both India and Bhutan. Wherever possible, an effort was made to assess over development impact on welfare of people in India and Bhutan. See Less -
Working Paper 81998 SEP 01, 2012
Datta, Namita; Timilsina, Govinda; Khanna, Mahima; Massuet, Ferran Casadevall
One key contentious issue in climate change negotiations is the huge difference in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita between more advanced industrialized countries and other nations. ... See More + This paper analyzes the costs of reducing this gap. Simulations using a global computable general equilibrium model show that the average the carbon dioxide intensity of advanced industrialized countries would remain almost twice as high as the average for other countries in 2030, even if the former group adopted a heavy uniform carbon tax of $250/tCO2 that reduced their emissions by 57 percent from the baseline. Global emissions would fall only 18 percent, due to an increase in emissions in the other countries. This reduction may not be adequate to move toward 2050 emission levels that avoid dangerous climate change. The tax would reduce Annex I countries' gross domestic product by 2.4 percent, and global trade volume by 2 percent. The economic costs of the tax vary significantly across countries, with heavier burdens on fossil fuel intensive economies such as Russia, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6115 JUL 01, 2012
Timilsina, Govinda R.
Argentina is one of the world's largest biodiesel producers and the largest exporter, using soybeans as feedstock. Using a computable general equilibrium model that explicitly represents the biofuel industry, this study carries out several simulations on two sets of issues: (i) international markets for biofuel and feedstock, such as an increase in prices of soybean, soybean oil, and biodiesel, and (ii) domestic policies related to biofuels, such as an introduction of biofuel mandates. ... See More + Both sets of issues can have important consequences to the Argentinean economy. The simulations indicate that increases in international prices of biofuels and feedstocks would increase Argentina's gross domestic product and social welfare. Increases in international prices of ethanol and corn also can benefit Argentina, but to a lesser extent. The domestic mandates for biofuels, however, would cause small losses in economic output and social welfare because they divert part of biodiesel and feedstock from exports to lower-return domestic consumption. An increase in the export tax on either feedstock or biodiesel also would lead to a reduction in gross domestic product and social welfare, although government revenue would rise. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6124 JUL 01, 2012
Chisari, Omar O.; Romero, Carlos A.; Timilsina, Govinda
The overall impacts on the Brazilian economy of reducing CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes can be assessed using a recursive dynamic general equilibrium model and a hypothetical carbon tax. ... See More + The study projects that in 2040 under a business-as-usual scenario, CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. Current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If policy is implemented as planned and continued to 2040, CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would not have to be cut until 2035 as reductions of emissions through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet emission targets. The study also finds evidence that supports the double dividend hypothesis: using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax significantly lowers the gross domestic product impacts of the carbon tax. Using carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the output of wind power in the country, although the impact of the tax on gross domestic product would be somewhat increased. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6135 JUL 01, 2012
Chen, Y.-H. Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R.
This paper analyzes the impact of large-scale expansion of biofuels on the global income distribution and poverty. A global computable general equilibrium model is used to simulate the effects of the expansion of biofuels on resource allocation, commodity prices, factor prices and household income. ... See More + A second model based on world-wide household surveys uses these results to calculate the impacts on poverty and global income inequality. The study finds that the large-scale expansion of biofuels leads to an increase in production and prices of agricultural commodities. The increased prices would cause higher food prices, especially in developing countries. Moreover, wages of unskilled rural labor would also increase, which slows down the rural to urban migration in many developing countries. The study also shows that the effects on poverty vary across regions; it increases in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas it decreases in Latin America. At the global level, the expansion of biofuels increases poverty slightly. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6078 JUN 01, 2012
Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cororaton, Caesar B.
Economically efficient prices for the passenger transportation system in the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area would account for broader societal costs of traffic congestion and accidents, and local and global pollution. ... See More + A $2.20 per gallon gasoline tax (2006 US$) would be economically efficient, compared with the current subsidy of $1.20 per gallon. Removal of the existing subsidy alone would achieve about three-quarters of the net benefits from subsidy elimination and the tax. Per-mile tolls could target congestion and accident externalities more efficiently than fuel taxes, although they are not practical at present. A combination of $0.80 per gallon gasoline tax to address pollution (versus $2.20 without tolls), and $0.12 and $0.19 tolls per vehicle mile on automobiles and microbuses, respectively, to address traffic congestion and accident externalities (versus $0.22 without fuel taxes) would be most efficient. Current public bus and rail subsidies are relatively close to efficient levels in the absence of such policies; however, if automobile and microbus externalities were fully addressed through more efficient pricing, optimal subsides to public transit would be smaller than current levels. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6083 JUN 01, 2012
Parry, Ian W.H.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. ... See More + This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential, development and large-scale, market-driven deployment of solar energy technologies world-wide still has to overcome a number of technical and financial barriers. Unless these barriers are overcome, maintaining and increasing electricity supplies from solar energy will require continuation of potentially costly policy supports. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS5845 OCT 01, 2011
Kurdgelashvili, Lado; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Narbel, Patrick A.
|Title||Document Date||Report No.||Document Type||Also available in|
|Household cooking fuel choice and adoption of improved cookstoves in developing countries : a review (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2014||WPS6903||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Why has energy efficiency not scaled-up in the industrial and commercial sectors in Ukraine ? an empirical analysis (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2014||WPS6920||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Economics of transiting to renewable energy in Morocco : a general equilibrium analysis : Economics of transiting to renewable energy in Morocco : a general equilibrium analysis (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2014||WPS6940||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Transaction costs of low-carbon technologies and policies : the diverging literature (English) See More +||AUG 01, 2013||WPS6565||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Should Zambia produce biodiesel from soybeans ? some insights from an empirical analysis (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2013||WPS6498||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Are biofuels economically competitive with their petroleum counterparts ?production cost analysis for Zambia (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2013||WPS6499||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Macroeconomic and distributional impacts of jatropha-based biodiesel in Mali (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2013||WPS6500||Policy Research Working Paper|
|How much does an increase in oil prices affect the global economy ? some insights from a general equilibrium analysis (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2013||WPS6515||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Climate change in the Himalayas : current state of knowledge (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2013||WPS6516||Policy Research Working Paper|
|An economic model of Brazil's ethanol-sugar markets and impacts of fuel policies (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2013||WPS6524||Policy Research Working Paper|
|The effect of biodiesel policies on world oilseed markets and developing countries (English) See More +||MAY 01, 2013||WPS6453||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Linking power supply to jobs : estimating employment effects of Powerlinks Transmission Limited Project in India and Bhutan (English) See More +||JAN 01, 2013||81999||Brief|
|Development of biofuels in China : technologies, economics and policies (English) See More +||OCT 01, 2012||WPS6243||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Estimating employment effects of Powerlinks Transmission Limited Project in India and Bhutan (English) See More +||SEP 01, 2012||81998||Working Paper|
|Economic implications of moving toward global convergence on emission intensities (English) See More +||JUL 01, 2012||WPS6115||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Potential gains and losses of Biofuel production in Argentina: a computable general equilibrium analysis (English) See More +||JUL 01, 2012||WPS6124||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil : Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil (English) See More +||JUL 01, 2012||WPS6135||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Impacts of large-scale expansion of biofuels on global poverty and income distribution (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2012||WPS6078||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Demand side instruments to reduce road transportation externalities in the greater cairo metropolitan area : Demand side instruments to reduce road transportation externalities in the greater Cairo metropolitan area (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2012||WPS6083||Policy Research Working Paper|
|A review of solar energy : markets, economics and policies (English) See More +||OCT 01, 2011||WPS5845||Policy Research Working Paper|