India has led the developing world in addressing rural energy problems. By late 2012, the national electricity grid had reached 92 percent of Indias rural villages, about 880 million people. ... See More + In more remote areas and those with geographically difficult terrain, where grid extension is not economically viable, off-grid solutions using renewable-energy sources for electricity generation and distribution have been promoted. The positive results of the countrys rural energy policies and institutions have contributed greatly to reducing the number of people globally who remain without electricity access. Yet, owing mainly to its large population, India has by far the worlds largest number of households without electricity. More than one-quarter of its population or about 311 million people, the vast majority of whom live in poorer rural areas, still lack an electricity connection; less than half of all households in the poorest income group have electricity. Among households with electricity service, hundreds of millions lack reliable power supply. See Less -
Publication 92223 OCT 29, 2014
Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Barnes, Douglas; Singh, Bipul; Mayer, Kristy; Samad, Hussain
Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in raising living standards and reducing poverty, particularly in previously lagging regions. Rapid solar home system (SHS) expansion in Bangladesh to some 3 million rural households by early 2014 has drawn the attention of donors and governments of other countries. ... See More + The books broad aim is twofold: (a) to assess the welfare impact of SHS on households, and (b) to evaluate the present institutional structure and financing mechanisms in place, noting that households want cheaper systems and good quality service while suppliers require a reasonable market-based profit to stay in business. The study entailed an intensive empirical investigation based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data consisted mainly of a large-scale, nationally representative household survey with appropriate geographic spread. Conducted in 2012 by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) and assisted by the World Bank, the household survey was designed to examine SHS benefits and costs. The book addresses a number of research issues, which are grouped according to general and gendered household impact, program delivery and monitoring of technical standards, market size and demand, and carbon emissions reduction. The book also analyzes household uses of solar-electric energy services. Typically, SHS models are used for lighting, powering fans and television sets, and charging mobile devices and other electrical equipment. Finally, the book evaluates the gender-disaggregated benefits and women's empowerment from SHS adoption. The gender analysis included two major research questions: (a) can the socioeconomic status of rural women be enhanced by increasing the opportunity to participate in alternative energy-service delivery, and (b) if SHS brings positive impacts in terms of social indicators, what additional efforts can supplement them to bring about a radical shift in gender roles and responsibilities. The book's findings show that better household lighting improves household welfare both directly and indirectly. The book has eight chapters. Chapter one is introduction. Chapter two describes the current status of Bangladesh's SHS expansion program, including salient features of system operation, as well as program delivery and financing. Chapter three reviews the role of electrification in rural development and international experience in using SHS as a complementary solution in remote off-grid areas. Based on the survey data findings, chapter four identifies the major drivers of SHS adoption and system capacity selection at the household and village level, while chapter five discusses and estimates the welfare benefits. Chapter six focuses on SHS market analysis and role of the subsidy, including consumers' willingness to pay and the potential impact of subsidy phase-out. Chapter seven turns to the quality of partner organization (PO) service and other supply-side issues, along with market constraints to meet future demand. Finally, chapter eight offers policy perspectives and a way forward. See Less -
Publication 91349 OCT 08, 2014
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Sadeque, Zubair K. M.; Asaduzzaman, Mohammed; Yunus, Mohammad; Haque, A. K. Enamul
This paper uses long panel survey data spanning over 20 years to examine the dynamics of microcredit programs in Bangladesh. With the phenomenal growth of microfinance institutions representing 30 million members with over $2 billion of annual disbursement over the past two decades, it is important to understand the dynamics of microcredit expansion and its induced impact on household welfare. ... See More + A dynamic panel model is used to address a number of issues, such as whether credit effects are declining over time, whether market saturation and village diseconomies are taking place, and whether multiple program membership, which is rising as a consequence of microcredit expansion, is harming or benefiting the borrowers. The paper's results confirm that microcredit programs have continued to benefit the poor by raising household welfare. The beneficial effects have also remained higher for female than male borrowers. There are diseconomies of scale caused by higher levels of village-level borrowing, especially for male members. Multiple program membership is also growing with competition from microfinance institutions, but this has rather helped raise assets and net worth more than it has contributed to indebtedness. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6821 MAR 01, 2014
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
The Government of Bangladesh, with help from the World Bank and other donors, has provided aid to a local agency called Infrastructure Development Company Limited and its partner organizations to devise a credit scheme for marketing solar home system units and making these an affordable alternative to grid electricity for poor people in remote areas. ... See More + This paper uses household survey data to examine the financing scheme behind the dissemination of these solar home systems, in particular the role of the subsidy; the factors that determine the adoption of the systems in rural Bangladesh; and the welfare impacts of such adoption. The paper finds that while the subsidy has been declining over time, the demand for solar home systems has seen phenomenal growth, mostly because of technological developments that have made the systems increasingly more affordable. Households with better physical and educational endowments are more likely to adopt solar home systems than poor households. The price of the system matters in household decision making -- a 10 percent decline in the price of the system increases the overall demand for a solar panel by 2 percent. As for the benefits, adoption of a solar home system improves childrens evening study time, lowers kerosene consumption, and provides health benefits for household members, in particular for women. It is also found to increase women's decision-making ability in certain household affairs. Finally, it is found to increase household consumption expenditure, although at a small scale. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6724 DEC 01, 2013
Samad, Hussain A.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Yunus, Mohammad
Household air pollution is the second leading cause of disease in Madagascar, where more than 99 percent of households rely on solid biomass, such as charcoal, wood, and crop waste, as the main cooking fuel. ... See More + Only a limited number of studies have looked at the emissions and health consequences of cook stoves in Africa. This paper summarizes an initiative to monitor household air pollution in two towns in Madagascar, with a stratified sample of 154 and 184 households. Concentrations of fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide in each kitchen were monitored three times using UCB Particle Monitors and GasBadge Pro Single Gas Monitors. The average concentrations of both pollutants significantly exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for indoor exposure. A fixed-effect panel regression analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of various factors, including fuel (charcoal, wood, and ethanol), stove (traditional and improved ethanol), kitchen size, ventilation, building materials, and ambient environment. Judging by its effect on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide, ethanol is significantly cleaner than biomass fuels and, for both pollutants, a larger kitchen significantly improves the quality of household air. Compared with traditional charcoal stoves, improved charcoal stoves were found to have no significant impact on air quality, but the improved wood stove with a chimney was effective in reducing concentrations of carbon monoxide in the kitchen, as was ventilation. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6627 SEP 01, 2013
Dasgupta, Susmita; Martin, Paul; Samad, Hussain A.
This brief summarizes the welfare impacts of rural electrification: evidence from Vietnam for the period 2000-2004. Access to electricity is a key to any development initiative and there is a growing body of literature on the impact of rural electrification on development. ... See More + However, most studies have so far relied on cross-sectional surveys comparing households with and without electricity, which have well known causal attribution problems. This paper is one of the first studies to examine the welfare impacts of households' rural electrification based on panel surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 for some 1,100 households in rural Vietnam. The findings indicate that grid electrification has been both extensive (connecting all surveyed communes by 2005) and intensive (connecting almost 80 percent of the surveyed households by 2005). Vietnam is fairly unique in that once electricity is locally available, both rich and poor households are equally likely to get the connection. The econometric estimations suggest that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households' cash income, expenditure and educational outcomes. The benefits, however, reach a saturation point after prolonged exposure to electricity. Finally, this study recommends investigating long-term benefits of rural electrification - not just for households, but for rural economy as a whole. See Less -
Brief 81520 AUG 14, 2013
Khandker, Shahidur; Barnes, Douglas; Samad, Hussain; Minh, Nguyen Huu
Microcredit programs in Bangladesh have experienced spectacular growth in recent years, with a growing number of borrowers availing credit from multiple microcredit agencies. ... See More + There is a growing concern that if there are not sufficient returns to borrowing from microfinance institutions (MFIS), some borrowers might be taking loans that they will not be able to repay. A household may be considered over-indebted, for example, if its debt liability exceeds 40 percent of its income or assets. Using a long panel of household survey data from Bangladesh, the paper finds that some 26 percent of microcredit borrowers are over-indebted on this measure versus 22 percent of non-microcredit borrowers. Econometric analysis suggests that both MFI competition and multiple borrowing raise indebtedness. However, repeated borrowing, while it affects short-term liability adversely, does affect the long-term debt-asset ratio favorably. That is, repeated borrowing helps increase assets more than debt over time. Microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh are thus not necessarily over-indebted. But when borrowing is seen as protection against shocks such as floods even at the cost of being indebted, MFIs may offer micro-insurance schemes to safeguard borrowers against economic shocks. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6574 AUG 01, 2013
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Faruqee, Rashid; Samad, Hussain A.
This paper addresses whether microcredit participants in Bangladesh are trapped in poverty and debt, as many critics have argued in recent years. ... See More + Analysis of data from a long panel survey over a 20-year period confirms this is not the case, although numerous participants have been with microcredit programs for many years. The results of the analysis suggest that participants derive a variety of benefits from microcredit: It helps them to earn income and consume more, accumulate assets, invest in children's schooling, and be lifted out of poverty. This is not to say that non-participants have failed to progress over the same period. Both participants and non-participants have gained as the economy has grown; however, the rates of poverty reduction have been higher for participants. Testing the net effect of microcredit programs requires applying an econometric method that controls for why some households participated and others did not, conditional on their initial characteristics. In addition, the method must control for time-varying, unobserved heterogeneity that affects everyone over time, albeit in possibly different ways. The paper's econometric estimates show significant welfare gains resulting from microcredit participation, especially for women. They also show that the accrued benefits of borrowing outweigh accumulated debt. As a result, households' net worth has increased, and both poverty and the debt-asset ratio have declined. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6404 APR 01, 2013
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
In less-developed economies such as Bangladesh, the farm sector is the major source of employment and income, while the rural nonfarm sector provides as an additional source of income. ... See More + But the rural nonfarm sector increasingly plays an important role in fostering the development of the rural economy. A significant share of this sector is made up of microenterprise activities, which requires investment and access to adequate funds. This paper investigates the role access to finance plays in promoting the efficiency and growth of microenterprise activities. The findings suggest that households engaged in microenterprise activities, in addition to farm and other nonfarm activities, are much better off (in terms of income, expenditure and poverty) than those not engaged in such activities. Fewer than 10 percent of the enterprises have access to institutional finance (formal banks or microcredit), although the rate of return on microenterprise investments is more than sufficient (36 percent per year) to repay institutional loans. The research suggests that credit constraints may reduce the enterprises' profit margin by as much as 13.6 percent per year. As the returns to microenterprise investment are found to be high, microfinance institutions can play a larger role in supporting microenterprise growth in Bangladesh. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6333 JAN 01, 2013
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba
Seasonal hunger may result from seasonality of agriculture when households fail to smooth income and consumption. Using household survey data from the northwest region of Bangladesh, this paper examines alternative measures of seasonal hunger, and provides some evidence to support policies and programs needed to mitigate seasonal hunger. ... See More + The results suggest that a large majority of food-vulnerable households are the perpetual poor, as opposed to a small percentage of households who are subject to food deprivation only during the lean period. Findings suggest that government safety net programs and microcredit provide a cushion for the poor to stave off seasonal hunger. See Less -
Journal Article 79391 NOV 20, 2012
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Khalily, M. A. Baqui; Samad, Hussain A.
This paper applies an econometric analysis to estimate the average and distribution benefits of rural electrification using rich household survey data from India. ... See More + The results support that rural electrification helps to reduce time allocated to fuelwood collection by household members and increases time allocated to studying by boys and girls. Rural electrification also increases the labor supply of men and women, schooling of boys and girls, and household per capita income and expenditure. Electrification also helps reduce poverty. But the larger share of benefits accrues to wealthier rural households, with poorer ones having more limited use of electricity. The analysis also shows that restricted supply of electricity, due to frequent power outages, negatively affects both household electricity connection and its consumption, thereby reducing the expected benefits of rural electrification. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS6095 JUN 01, 2012
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba; Barnes, Douglas F.
This paper examines the role of social safety-net programs in Bangladesh run by the government and nongovernmental organizations to mitigate seasonal deprivation in the country's highly vulnerable northwest region. ... See More + Specifically, the paper explores whether social safety nets are limited to averting seasonal deprivation or can also address seasonality of income and employment more generally. Using a recent survey from the greater Rangpur (northwest) region, the paper finds that social safety nets have a positive effect on mitigating both seasonal and non-seasonal food deprivation. The results are robust, owing to the recent expanded coverage of social safety-net programs run by nongovernmental organizations active in the region. But given the annual recurrence of monga (seasonal food insecurity) in the northwest region owing to agricultural seasonality and an overwhelming dependence on agriculture for livelihoods, social safety nets are not a reliable tool for monga eradication. Programs are also needed to promote the income and productivity of the poor through diversification of income and employment. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS5865 OCT 01, 2011
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Khaleque, M. Abdul
A large section of the Nepalese population is deprived of electricity coverage despite huge hydropower potential, particularly in rural areas. About 63 percent of Nepalese households lack access to electricity and depend on oil-based or renewable energy alternatives. ... See More + The disparity in access is stark, with almost 90 percent of the urban population connected, but less than 30 percent of the rural population. Nepal has about 83,000 MW of economically exploitable resources, but only 650 MW have been developed so far. This study has been designated to organize an evaluation system that measures the impact of micro-hydro installations on rural livelihoods and to establish a monitoring system for Alternative Energy Promotion Center (APEC) to continually measure the results of the results of the renewable energy programs against the targets. See Less -
Publication 63667 JUL 29, 2011
Samad, Hussain; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Singh, Avjeet
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. ... See More + Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of solar home systems brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by solar home systems in non-electrified rural households was equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if the grid-electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from the installation of solar home systems. Second, solar home system subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third, there exists a market potential for solar home systems in many rural areas if micro-credit schemes are made available and the propensity to install solar home systems is very responsive to income, with a 1-percent increase in per capita income increasing the probability of installing solar home systems by 12 percent, controlling for other factors. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS5545 JAN 01, 2011
Samad, Hussain; Wang, Limin; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology-such as solar home systems (SHS)-to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. ... See More + Using a national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of SHS programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of SHS brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by SHS in non-electrified rural households is equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if grid-based electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from SHS installation. Second, SHS subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third, SHS has market potential in many rural areas if micro-credit schemes are made available. The propensity to install SHS is very responsive to income, with a 1 percent increase in per capita income increasing the probability of installing SHS by 12 percent, controlling other factors. See Less -
Newsletter 59204 JAN 01, 2011
Samad, Hussain; Wang, Limin; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit
Energy poverty is a frequently used term among energy specialists, but unfortunately the concept is rather loosely defined. Several existing approaches measure energy poverty by defining an energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. ... See More + This paper proposes an alternative measure that is based on energy demand. The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach was applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57 percent of households are energy poor, versus 22 percent that are income poor. For urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28 percent compared with 20 percent that are income poor. Policies to reduce energy poverty would include support for rural electrification, the promotion of more modern cooking fuels, and encouraging greater adoption of improved biomass stoves. A combination of these programs would play a significant role in reducing energy poverty in rural India. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS5463 NOV 01, 2010
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Barnes, Douglas F.
In northwest Bangladesh, some 36 percent of poor households migrate every year during the lean (monga) period to cope with seasonal deprivation. ... See More + Analysis of household survey data shows that the probability of seasonal migration is high for households with a high dependency ratio, high dependency on wage employment, and in villages with high unemployment; but low in villages with microcredit access. Findings show that seasonal migration helps households to smooth consumption and those non-migrant households who suffer during monga will likely benefit from deciding to migrate. But the cost of migration and lack of networking are potential barriers. The paper is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. The second section discusses the data and its major characteristics, such as the incidence of seasonal migration as a coping strategy and its relation to seasonal hardships (measured by starvation and meal rationing). The third section presents an analytical framework of how seasonal migration can help smooth consumption during the lean season. The fourth section analyses the determinants of seasonal migration, while the fifth section assesses the potential effect of seasonal migration on rural households' consumption-smoothing behavior. Finally, section six summarizes the study' findings and their policy implications. See Less -
Journal Article 79367 AUG 01, 2010
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Khalily, M. A. Baqui; Samad, Hussain A.
Microfinance is often criticized for not adequately addressing seasonality and hard-core poverty. In Bangladesh, a program known as PRIME was introduced in 2006 to address both concerns. ... See More + Unlike regular microfinance, PRIME introduces a microfinance scheme that offers a flexible repayment schedule and consumption smoothing, as well as production, loans. It targets the ultra-poor, many of whom are also seasonally poor, with a severe inability to smooth consumption during certain months of the year. Besides providing loans, PRIME offers extension and training services. This paper uses a quasi-experimental survey design to evaluate PRIME against regular microfinance programs. The results show that PRIME is more effective than regular microfinance in reaching the ultra-poor, as well as the seasonal poor. PRIME also helps reduce seasonal deprivation and extreme poverty. Although the program has demonstrated its promise, it is too early to conclude whether the accrued benefits are large enough to contain both seasonal and chronic poverty on a sustained basis. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS5331 JUN 01, 2010
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Khalily, M. A. Baqui
Access to energy, especially modern sources, is a key to any development initiative. Based on cross-section data from a 2004 survey of some 2,300 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of household energy use, including that of modern energy, and estimates the household minimum energy requirement that could be used as a basis for an energy poverty line. ... See More + The paper finds that although the use of both traditional (biomass energy burned in conventional stoves) and modern (electricity and kerosene) sources improves household consumption and income, the return on modern sources is 20 to 25 times higher than that on traditional sources. In addition, after comparing alternate measures of the energy poverty line, the paper finds that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, compared with 45 percent that are income poor. The findings suggest that growth in electrification and adoption of efficient cooking stoves for biomass use can lower energy poverty in a climate-friendly way by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing energy poverty helps reduce income poverty as well. See Less -
Policy Research Working Paper WPS5332 JUN 01, 2010
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
This book reviews quantitative methods and models of impact evaluation. The formal literature on impact evaluation methods and practices is large, with a few useful overviews. ... See More + Yet there is a need to put the theory into practice in a hands-on fashion for practitioners. This book also details challenges and goals in other realms of evaluation, including monitoring and evaluation (M&E), operational evaluation, and mixed-methods approaches combining quantitative and qualitative analyses. This book is organized as follows. Chapter two reviews the basic issues pertaining to an evaluation of an intervention to reach certain targets and goals. It distinguishes impact evaluation from related concepts such as M&E, operational evaluation, qualitative versus quantitative evaluation, and ex-ante versus ex post impact evaluation. Chapter three focuses on the experimental design of an impact evaluation, discussing its strengths and shortcomings. Various non-experimental methods exist as well, each of which are discussed in turn through chapters four to seven. Chapter four examines matching methods, including the propensity score matching technique. Chapter five deal with double-difference methods in the context of panel data, which relax some of the assumptions on the potential sources of selection bias. Chapter six reviews the instrumental variable method, which further relaxes assumptions on self-selection. Chapter seven examines regression discontinuity and pipeline methods, which exploit the design of the program itself as potential sources of identification of program impacts. Specifically, chapter eight presents a discussion of how distributional impacts of programs can be measured, including new techniques related to quantile regression. Chapter nine discusses structural approaches to program evaluation, including economic models that can lay the groundwork for estimating direct and indirect effects of a program. Finally, chapter ten discusses the strengths and weaknesses of experimental and non-experimental methods and also highlights the usefulness of impact evaluation tools in policy making. See Less -
Publication 52099 OCT 13, 2009
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Koolwal, Gayatri B.
|Title||Document Date||Report No.||Document Type||Also available in|
|Power for all : electricity access challenge in India (English) See More +||OCT 29, 2014||92223||Publication|
|Surge in solar-powered homes : experience in off-grid rural Bangladesh (English) See More +||OCT 08, 2014||91349||Publication|
|Dynamic effects of microcredit in Bangladesh (English) See More +||MAR 01, 2014||WPS6821||Policy Research Working Paper|
|The benefits of solar home systems :an analysis from Bangladesh (English) See More +||DEC 01, 2013||WPS6724||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Addressing household air pollution : a case study in rural Madagascar (English) See More +||SEP 01, 2013||WPS6627||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Welfare impacts of rural electrification : evidence from Vietnam (English) See More +||AUG 14, 2013||81520||Brief|
|Are microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh over-indebted ? (English) See More +||AUG 01, 2013||WPS6574||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Are microcredit participants in Bangladesh trapped in poverty and debt ? (English) See More +||APR 01, 2013||WPS6404||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Does access to finance matter in microenterprise growth ? evidence from Bangladesh (English) See More +||JAN 01, 2013||WPS6333||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Seasonal hunger and its mitigation in North-West Bangladesh (English) See More +||NOV 20, 2012||79391||Journal Article|
|Who benefits most from rural electrification ? evidence in India (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2012||WPS6095||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Can social safety nets alleviate seasonal deprivation ? evidence from northwest Bangladesh (English) See More +||OCT 01, 2011||WPS5865||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Power and people : the benefits of renewable energy in Nepal (English) See More +||JUL 29, 2011||63667||Publication|
|Quantifying Carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh (English) See More +||JAN 01, 2011||WPS5545||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Quantifying carbon and distributional benefits of renewable energy programs : the Bangladesh case study on solar home systems (English) See More +||JAN 01, 2011||59204||Newsletter|
|Energy poverty in rural and urban India : are the energy poor also income poor ? : Energy poverty in rural and urban India : are the energy poor also income poor ? (English) See More +||NOV 01, 2010||WPS5463||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Seasonal migration to mitigate income seasonality : evidence from Bangladesh (English) See More +||AUG 01, 2010||79367||Journal Article|
|Seasonal and extreme poverty in Bangladesh : evaluating an ultra-poor microfinance project (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2010||WPS5331||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Energy access, efficiency, and poverty : how many households are energy poor in Bangladesh ? (English) See More +||JUN 01, 2010||WPS5332||Policy Research Working Paper|
|Handbook on impact evaluation : quantitative methods and practices (English) See More +||OCT 13, 2009||52099||Publication|