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Unions can be bad - or good (English)

The note questions whether economic analyses, and country experiences allow generalizations, such as those from supporters of labor unions, who see these as a collective voice which enhance productivity, and equality, vs. those from opponents, whose views imply labor unions are monopolists, limiting employment to raise members' wages. ... See More +

Brief 21704 NOV 30, 1995

Disclosed

Will wages converge? (English)

The note questions whether the twenty first century will be able to usher in, an era of converging incomes; the stakes are high, but the risks of progress may leave some out, namely from as much as the unemployed workers in industrial countries, to much of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa, and may fail as well, in reducing severe inequalities in Latin America, and elsewhere. ... See More +

Brief 21702 NOV 30, 1995

Disclosed

Winners and losers (English)

The note focuses on the results of transition, particularly from failed development strategies, and, regardless of whether benefits will occur in the long run. ... See More +

Brief 21705 NOV 30, 1995

Disclosed

Trade increases most workers' welfare (English)

The note addresses the immediate gains of trade liberalization to workers' welfare, allowing cheaper imports, and enabling most workers to become more productive, as their products increase in value. ... See More +

Brief 21703 NOV 30, 1995

Disclosed

Engendering economics (English)

The note examines gender issues, as a term indispensable in discussions of economic development, and, explores research focused on the causes, and cures of gender bias. ... See More +

Brief 21699 AUG 31, 1995

Folbre, Nancy Disclosed

Making infrastructure dollars work (English)

Investments in infrastructure can return major benefits - increasing growth, and decreasing poverty. But only when they work, and many don't - wasting time, and money, dashing hopes, fueling cynicism, squandering opportunities. ... See More +

Brief 21700 AUG 31, 1995

Ostrom,Elinor Disclosed

Support for the aging (English)

Government of all types conclude that improvident citizens leave them no choice - they must get involved in pension schemes. That leads to debate over what sort of plan is best. ... See More +

Brief 21698 AUG 31, 1995

Diamond,Peter A Disclosed

Decentralization : good results aren't automatic (English)

Pushing responsibility, and taxing power down to regional governments, and municipalities, can increase efficiency, and accountability. But to achieve these gains, the necessary social, and institutional structures must be in place. ... See More +

Brief 21701 AUG 31, 1995

Tanzi, Vito Disclosed

Sunk costs : why exporters remain exporters (English)

The note reviews the different, and sometimes conflicting, answers to the question of what works to stimulate exports. It reveals that some researchers have concluded that the effect of changes in markets, or in export policy can be masked, or offset by the potential exporters' entry, or "sunken costs" - the largely one-time expense of gathering information on foreign markets, upgrading product quality, packaging costs, and establishing marketing channels. ... See More +

Brief 21695 MAY 31, 1995

Roberts, Mark J.; Tybout, James R. Disclosed

Reverse linkages - everybody wins (English)

As developing countries increasingly become part of the global economy, they benefit not just themselves, but also industrial countries, and these gains to industrial countries from reverse linkages, are potentially huge. ... See More +

Brief 21694 MAY 31, 1995

Disclosed

Self-provision of water and power: costly responses to public failure (English)

If private companies in developing countries, cannot get a reliable supply of power, water, telephone service, or transport, they will provide it themselves. ... See More +

Brief 21696 MAY 31, 1995

Kyu SiLee; Anas, Alex; Gi-Taik Oh Disclosed

EU's bananarama - slipping (English)

The note reviews the banana world trade, specifying the European Union (EU) consumes almost forty percent of the bananas in the world market; interestingly, Latin America, as the most efficient, lowest-cost grower, ships three, out of four bananas in world trade, but only a low percentage go to Europe. ... See More +

Brief 21691 MAR 31, 1995

Borrell,Brent William Disclosed

Speaking up : "Voice" and public accountability (English)

The note spells out the fact that public accountability is eroding in developing countries, and, addresses the seemingly, lack of alternatives to accepting the poor, and declining effectiveness. ... See More +

Brief 21693 MAR 31, 1995

Delepierre,Samuel Paul Robert Disclosed

A step backward in agricultural trade at the Uruguay Round? (English)

The worldwide liberalization of agricultural trade, intended by last year's Uruguay Round agreement, may not be as great as expected. The aim of the Uruguay Round - to reverse protectionism, and remove trade distortions - risks not being achieved in practice, at least not until further reductions are agreed to in future rounds of negotiations. ... See More +

Brief 21690 MAR 31, 1995

Ingeo, Merlinda D. Disclosed

Hope for Latin America's indigenous poor (English)

The note addresses the impending needs of indigenous populations in Latin America, where even small improvements in their education would yield large gains in relative wealth. ... See More +

Brief 21692 MAR 31, 1995

Psacharopoulos, George; Patrinos, Harry A. Disclosed

Creating private enterprises and efficient markets (English)

The note focuses on privatization, as one of the bright spots on the, generally bleak, Russian economic landscape. Reformers have been able to implement a "corporatization" program; persuade "insider" stakeholders who might have opposed privatization; conceive, and implement a voucher program; create a national voucher auction system; and, facilitate private investment funds. ... See More +

Brief 21687 JAN 31, 1995

Lieberman, Ira W.; Nellis, John; Karlova, Enna; Muk Disclosed

Better health and nutrition for women (English)

Many of the leading causes of death, and disability among women in developing countries, can be prevented or treated through highly cost-effective interventions, and special attention is warranted to reaching women during adolescence, when reproductive and lifestyle behavior, set the stage for later life. ... See More +

Brief 21689 JAN 31, 1995

Tinker, Anne; Daly, Patricia; Green, Cynthia; Saxen Disclosed

The cost of air pollution abatement (English)

Estimates of air pollution abatement costs based on comprehensive U.S. census data, provide a practical basis for decisions by developing countries, on which industries to target, and which emissions charges would be most efficient, and under which circumstances. ... See More +

Brief 21686 JAN 31, 1995

Hartman, Raymond S.; Wheeler, David; Singh, Manjul Disclosed

Economic consequences of the transition from civil war to peace (English)

Evidence from Africa - especially Ethiopia and Uganda - sheds light on why, when a civil war ends, it takes time to claim a peace dividend. The note suggests there is rarely a substantial peace dividend in the short run, and moreover, the fiscal position may deteriorate to unsustainable levels. ... See More +

Brief 21688 JAN 31, 1995

Azam, Jean-Paul; Bevan, David; Collier, Paul; Derco Disclosed

Redistribution across income levels in pay-as-you-go (English)

Pay-as-you-go pension schemes can redistribute lifetime income from the rich to the poor. To achieve this redistributive objective, the United States and the Philippines provide higher wage replacement rates for individuals with lower lifetime wages. ... See More +

Brief 24798 NOV 30, 1994

Disclosed

Title Document Date Report No. Document Type Also available in
Unions can be bad - or good (English)
See More +
NOV 30, 1995 21704 Brief
Will wages converge? (English)
See More +
NOV 30, 1995 21702 Brief
Winners and losers (English)
See More +
NOV 30, 1995 21705 Brief
Trade increases most workers' welfare (English)
See More +
NOV 30, 1995 21703 Brief
Engendering economics (English)
See More +
AUG 31, 1995 21699 Brief
Making infrastructure dollars work (English)
See More +
AUG 31, 1995 21700 Brief
Support for the aging (English)
See More +
AUG 31, 1995 21698 Brief
Decentralization : good results aren't automatic (English)
See More +
AUG 31, 1995 21701 Brief
Sunk costs : why exporters remain exporters (English)
See More +
MAY 31, 1995 21695 Brief
Reverse linkages - everybody wins (English)
See More +
MAY 31, 1995 21694 Brief
Self-provision of water and power: costly responses to public failure (English)
See More +
MAY 31, 1995 21696 Brief
EU's bananarama - slipping (English)
See More +
MAR 31, 1995 21691 Brief
Speaking up : "Voice" and public accountability (English)
See More +
MAR 31, 1995 21693 Brief
A step backward in agricultural trade at the Uruguay Round? (English)
See More +
MAR 31, 1995 21690 Brief
Hope for Latin America's indigenous poor (English)
See More +
MAR 31, 1995 21692 Brief
Creating private enterprises and efficient markets (English)
See More +
JAN 31, 1995 21687 Brief
Better health and nutrition for women (English)
See More +
JAN 31, 1995 21689 Brief
The cost of air pollution abatement (English)
See More +
JAN 31, 1995 21686 Brief
Economic consequences of the transition from civil war to peace (English)
See More +
JAN 31, 1995 21688 Brief
Redistribution across income levels in pay-as-you-go (English)
See More +
NOV 30, 1994 24798 Brief