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Trade policy instruments over time (English)

This paper surveys political-economic research on the variety of instruments that governments use to conduct international trade policy. It presents key insights on the relationships between instruments such as tariffs, quotas, voluntary export restraints, and other nontariff barriers, as well as the ebb and flow of the national use of temporary trade barriers such as antidumping, countervailing duties, and safeguards. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6757 JAN 01, 2014

Bown, Chad P.

Armenia - Power sector tariff study (English)

Armenia's energy sector has achieved a level of electricity reliability, service quality and efficiency of sector operations that stands out among countries participating in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). ... See More +

Energy Study ACS4845 JUN 01, 2013

Kochnakyan, Artur; Balabanyan, Ani; Antmann, Pedro; Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri; Olivier, Anne; Pierce, Lauren; Hankinson, Denzel

Trade policy barriers: an obstacle to export diversification in Eurasia (English)

Despite trade liberalization efforts made by Eurasian countries, the export structure of the region shows significant levels of concentration across export destinations. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6434 MAY 01, 2013

Hollweg, Claire H.; Cusolito, Ana Paula

Measuring the real size of the World economy : the framework, methodology, and research of the International Comparison Program (ICP) (English)

The International Comparison Program (ICP) has become not only the largest international statistical program in the world, but also the most complex. ... See More +

Publication 79451 JAN 01, 2013

Blades, Derek; Chen, Shaohua; Deaton, Angus S.; Coonan, James

Impact of WTO accession and the customs union on the bound and applied tariff rates of the Russian federation (English)

After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS6161 AUG 01, 2012

Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.

Power tariffs : caught between cost recovery and affordability (English)

This is the first paper to build a comprehensive empirical picture of power pricing practices across Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a new database of tariff structures in 27 countries for the years 2004-2008. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5904 DEC 01, 2011

Shkaratan, Maria; Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia

Coordinating tax reforms in the poorest countries : can lost tariffs be recouped ? (English)

A revenue-neutral switch from trade taxes to domestic consumption taxes is fraught with implementation challenges in countries with a large informal sector. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5919 DEC 01, 2011

Wagle, Swarnim

Determinants of trade policy responses to the 2008 financial crisis (English)

The collapse in trade and contraction of output that occurred during 2008-09 was comparable to, and in many countries more severe than, the Great Depression of 1930, but did not give rise to the rampant protectionism that followed the Great Crash. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5862 OCT 01, 2011

Cui, Yue; Hoekman, Bernard; Gawande, Kishore

The discriminatory nature of specific tariffs (English)

This paper quantifies the distortions from specific tariffs levied by the European Union (EU). The most favored nation (MFN) specific tariffs levied by the EU translate into higher tariff barriers for poor countries exporting low price goods. ... See More +

Journal Article 81288 JUL 12, 2011

Chowdhury, Sohini

Russian Federation Customs Development Project : measurable progress : Proiectul Federatiei Ruse de Dezvoltare a Autoritatilor Vamale : progrese masurabile (Romanian)

The Russian Federation Customs Development Project (CDP), launched in 2003, has been helping reform and modernizes the country's federal customs service. ... See More +

Brief 63650 JUL 01, 2011

Johns, Kimberly; Kristensen, Jens Kromann; McLinden, Gerard English

Implications of the Doha market access proposals for developing countries (English)

This paper uses detailed data on bound and applied tariffs to assess the consequences of the World Trade Organization’s December 2008 Modalities for tariffs levied and faced by developing countries, and the welfare implications of these reforms. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5679 JUN 01, 2011

Martin, Will; Laborde, David; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique

A profile of border protection in Egypt : an effective rate of protection approach adjusting for energy subsidies (English)

This study examines recent effective rates of protection across the Egyptian economy, using an ad valorem price wedge introduced by nontariff barriers and energy subsidies, and compares today's effective rates of protection with those of a decade ago. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5685 JUN 01, 2011

Foster, William; Valdes, Alberto

Measuring the impacts of global trade reform with optimal aggregators of distortions (English)

Traditional weighted-average measures of trade distortions are widely used in analyzing global and regional reforms, despite well-known deficiencies. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5665 MAY 01, 2011

Martin, Will; Laborde, David; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique

Formulas and flexibility in trade negotiations : sensitive agricultural products in the world trade organization's Doha agenda (English)

Many trade negotiations involve large cuts in high tariffs, while allowing smaller cuts for an agreed share of politically sensitive products. The effects of these flexibilities on market access opportunities are difficult to predict, creating particular problems for developing countries in assessing whether to support a proposed trade agreement. ... See More +

Journal Article 77645 OCT 01, 2010

Jean, Sebastien; Laborde, David; Martin, Will

Estimating the fiscal impact of the Cote d'Ivoire-EU economic partnership agreement (English)

Cote d'Ivoire is the second largest economy in West Africa. It is one of eight member states of the Uemoa and is also a member state of Ecowas. ... See More +

Brief 60022 AUG 01, 2010

Hoppe, Mombert

Estimates of trade-related adjustment costs in Syria (English)

The scope and complexity of international trading arrangements in the Middle East, as well as their spotty historical record of success, underscores the urgent need for an adequate understanding of the relative costs and benefits of participation in preferential trading arrangements and, more generally, of changes in domestic import regimes. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5368 JUL 01, 2010

Lim, Jamus Jerome; Saborowski, Christian

Tuvalu - New member of IDA (English)

The articles of agreement of the association were signed today by the Honourable Lotoala Metia, Minister of Finance and Economic Planning of Tuvalu. ... See More +

Board Report 55346 JUN 24, 2010

Self-enforcing trade agreements : evidence from time-varying trade policy (English)

The Bagwell and Staiger (1990) theory of cooperative trade agreements predicts new tariffs (i) increase with imports, (ii) increase with the inverse of the sum of the import demand and export supply elasticities, and (iii) decrease with the variance of imports. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5223 MAR 01, 2010

Crowley, Meredith A.; Bown, Chad P.

Formulas and flexibility in trade negotiations : sensitive agricultural products in the WTO's Doha agenda (English)

Many trade negotiations involve large cuts in high tariffs, with flexibilities allowing much smaller cuts for an agreed number of politically-sensitive products. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS5200 FEB 01, 2010

Martin, Will; Jean, Sebastien; Laborde, David

Burundi - World trade indicators 2009 (Vol. 1 of 2) : Trade brief (English)

This country level trade brief summarizes insights from the world trade indicators database as well as analyzes national impacts and responses to the food crisis and global recession. ... See More +

Brief 72550 DEC 01, 2009

Title Document Date Report No. Document Type Also available in
Trade policy instruments over time (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2014 WPS6757 Policy Research Working Paper
Armenia - Power sector tariff study (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2013 ACS4845 Energy Study
Trade policy barriers: an obstacle to export diversification in Eurasia (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2013 WPS6434 Policy Research Working Paper
Measuring the real size of the World economy : the framework, methodology, and research of the International Comparison Program (ICP) (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2013 79451 Publication
Impact of WTO accession and the customs union on the bound and applied tariff rates of the Russian federation (English)
See More +
AUG 01, 2012 WPS6161 Policy Research Working Paper
Power tariffs : caught between cost recovery and affordability (English)
See More +
DEC 01, 2011 WPS5904 Policy Research Working Paper
Coordinating tax reforms in the poorest countries : can lost tariffs be recouped ? (English)
See More +
DEC 01, 2011 WPS5919 Policy Research Working Paper
Determinants of trade policy responses to the 2008 financial crisis (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2011 WPS5862 Policy Research Working Paper
The discriminatory nature of specific tariffs (English)
See More +
JUL 12, 2011 81288 Journal Article
Russian Federation Customs Development Project : measurable progress : Proiectul Federatiei Ruse de Dezvoltare a Autoritatilor Vamale : progrese masurabile (Romanian)
See More +
JUL 01, 2011 63650 Brief English
Implications of the Doha market access proposals for developing countries (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2011 WPS5679 Policy Research Working Paper
A profile of border protection in Egypt : an effective rate of protection approach adjusting for energy subsidies (English)
See More +
JUN 01, 2011 WPS5685 Policy Research Working Paper
Measuring the impacts of global trade reform with optimal aggregators of distortions (English)
See More +
MAY 01, 2011 WPS5665 Policy Research Working Paper
Formulas and flexibility in trade negotiations : sensitive agricultural products in the world trade organization's Doha agenda (English)
See More +
OCT 01, 2010 77645 Journal Article
Estimating the fiscal impact of the Cote d'Ivoire-EU economic partnership agreement (English)
See More +
AUG 01, 2010 60022 Brief
Estimates of trade-related adjustment costs in Syria (English)
See More +
JUL 01, 2010 WPS5368 Policy Research Working Paper
Tuvalu - New member of IDA (English)
See More +
JUN 24, 2010 55346 Board Report
Self-enforcing trade agreements : evidence from time-varying trade policy (English)
See More +
MAR 01, 2010 WPS5223 Policy Research Working Paper
Formulas and flexibility in trade negotiations : sensitive agricultural products in the WTO's Doha agenda (English)
See More +
FEB 01, 2010 WPS5200 Policy Research Working Paper
Burundi - World trade indicators 2009 (Vol. 1 of 2) : Trade brief (English)
See More +
DEC 01, 2009 72550 Brief