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The middle-income trap turns ten (English)

Since we introduced the term “middle-income trap” in 2006, it has become popular among policy makers and researchers. In May 2015, a search of Google Scholar returned more than 3,000 articles including the term and about 300 articles with the term in the title. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7403 AUG 26, 2015

Gill,Indermit S.; Kharas,Homi

Preferences, purchasing power parity, and inequality : analytical framework, propositions, and empirical evidence (English)

This paper makes analytical, methodological and empirical contributions to the literature on purchasing power parity. Purchasing power parities are required in a host of cross-country welfare comparisons, such as poverty rates and gross domestic product. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7395 AUG 18, 2015

Majumder,Amita; Ray,Ranjan; Santra,Sattwik

Lower bounds on inequality of opportunity and measurement error (English)

When measuring inequality of opportunity, researchers usually opt to eliminate within-type variation. Provided that in practice it is impossible to observe all circumstances, this implies that the researcher estimates a lower bound of the true level of inequality of opportunity. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7379 JUL 28, 2015

Balcazar Salazar,Carlos Felipe

The consumption, income, and wealth of the poorest: cross-sectional facts of rural and urban Sub-Saharan Africa for macroeconomists (English)

This paper provides new empirical insights on the joint distribution of consumption, income, and wealth in three of the poorest countries in the world — Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda — all located in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7337 JUN 25, 2015

De Magalhaes,Leandro; Santaeulalia-Llopis,Raul

Effects of income inequality on aggregate output (English)

This paper estimates the effect of income inequality on real gross domestic product per capita using a panel of 104 countries during the period 1970–2010. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7317 JUN 22, 2015

Brueckner,Markus; Lederman,Daniel

Toward a new definition of shared prosperity: a dynamic perspective from three countries (English)

This paper proposes a new measure of growth in shared prosperity, based on shifts in population shares of different income groups over time. This measure complements the definition of shared prosperity recently proposed by the World Bank in which income growth of the bottom 40 percent is examined. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7294 JUN 08, 2015

Dang,Hai-Anh H.; Lanjouw,Peter F.

How unfair is the inequality of wage earnings in Russia ? estimates from panel data (English)

This paper attempts to determine the extent to which inequality in wage earnings in the Russian Federation is unfair. Unlike other similar attempts that can, at best, produce a lower bound on the estimate of the share of inequality that is unfair, this paper exploits the longitudinal nature of the data to come up with a lower bound as well as an upper bound. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7291 JUN 03, 2015

Tiwari,Sailesh; Lara Ibarra,Gabriel; Narayan,Ambar

Inequality of outcomes and inequality of opportunity in Tanzania (English)

The paper investigates the structure and dynamics of consumption inequality and inequality of opportunity in Tanzania. The analysis covers the period 2001 to 2012. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7260 MAY 11, 2015

Belghith,Nadia Belhaj Hassine; Zeufack,Albert G.

DECPG global daily economic news (English)

Some of the headings included in this issue of the Development Economics Prospects Group (DECPG) global daily economic news are as follows: high income economies; and developing economies in Latin America, Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa ... See More +

Newsletter 96669 MAY 06, 2015

Chen,Derek Hung Chiat

Measuring inequality from top to bottom (English)

This paper presents a new methodology to measure inequality that optimally combines household survey information and tax records to construct a complete income distribution. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7237 APR 13, 2015

Diaz Bazan,Tania Valeria

Panama - Country partnership framework FY2015-21 : chair summary (English)

Board Summary 95633 APR 07, 2015

Equality of opportunity : theory and evidence (English)

Building on earlier work by political philosophers, economists have recently sought to define a concept of equity that accommodates the fairness of reward to individual responsibility and effort, while allowing for the existence of some inequalities which are unfair and should be compensated. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7217 MAR 20, 2015

Ferreira,Francisco H. G.; Peragine,Vito

No condition is permanent : middle class in Nigeria in the last decade (English)

The economic debate on existence and definition of the middle class has become particularly lively in many developing countries. Despite this growing interest, the identification of the middle class group in these countries remains quite challenging. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7214 MAR 16, 2015

Corral Rodas,Paul Andres; Molini,Vasco; Oseni,Gbemisola O.

Ex ante poverty and fiscal evaluation of a guaranteed minimum income programme in Greece (English)

This study simulates the effects of a guaranteed minimum income in Greece, using the European tax-benefit model EUROMOD, in terms of: fiscal costs, participation (number of persons eligible for support), anti-poverty impact (poverty lines, headcount rates and poverty gaps indicators, reference population by age, by gender, by area, and by tenure), and work incentives (marginal effective tax rates). ... See More +

Working Paper 97840 JAN 10, 2015

Born with a silver spoon : inequality in educational achievement across the world (English)

This paper assesses inequality of opportunity in educational achievement using the Human Opportunity Index methodology on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7152 JAN 01, 2015

Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Narayan, Ambar; Tiwari, Sailesh

Gender inequality and growth: the case of rich vs. poor countries (English)

This paper uses cross-section data for 107 countries to explore the relationship between gender inequality and economic growth. The paper departs from the literature by using a broad measure of gender inequality that goes well beyond gender inequality in education, which has been the focus of most studies. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7172 JAN 01, 2015

Amin, Mohammad; Kuntchev, Veselin; Schmidt, Martin

Economic mobility in Europe and Central Asia : exploring patterns and uncovering puzzles (English)

Substantial upward economic mobility in the majority of countries in Europe and Central Asia in the 2000s translated into achievements in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7173 JAN 01, 2015

Cancho, Cesar; Davalos, Maria E.; Demarchi, Giorgia; Meyer, Moritz; Sanchez Paramo, Carolina

Estimating parameters and structural change in CGE models using a Bayesian cross-entropy estimation approach (English)

This paper uses a three-step Bayesian cross-entropy estimation approach in an environment of noisy and scarce data to estimate behavioral parameters for a computable general equilibrium model. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7174 JAN 01, 2015

Go, Delfin S.; Lofgren, Hans; Mendez Ramos, Fabian; Robinson, Sherman

Long-run effects of democracy on income inequality : evidence from repeated cross-sections (English)

This paper assesses the link between democracy and inequality. Inequality is measured at the cohort level with pseudo-panel data built from nine Latin American countries household surveys (1995-2009, biannual). ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7153 JAN 01, 2015

Balcazar Salazar,Carlos Felipe

Party age and party color : new results on the political economy of redistribution and inequality (English)

This paper advances research on inequality with unique, new data on income distribution in 61 countries, including 20 Latin American countries, to explore the effects of political parties on redistribution. ... See More +

Policy Research Working Paper WPS7129 DEC 01, 2014

Keefer, Philip; Milanovic, Branko

Title Document Date Report No. Document Type Also available in
The middle-income trap turns ten (English)
See More +
AUG 26, 2015 WPS7403 Policy Research Working Paper
Preferences, purchasing power parity, and inequality : analytical framework, propositions, and empirical evidence (English)
See More +
AUG 18, 2015 WPS7395 Policy Research Working Paper
Lower bounds on inequality of opportunity and measurement error (English)
See More +
JUL 28, 2015 WPS7379 Policy Research Working Paper
The consumption, income, and wealth of the poorest: cross-sectional facts of rural and urban Sub-Saharan Africa for macroeconomists (English)
See More +
JUN 25, 2015 WPS7337 Policy Research Working Paper
Effects of income inequality on aggregate output (English)
See More +
JUN 22, 2015 WPS7317 Policy Research Working Paper
Toward a new definition of shared prosperity: a dynamic perspective from three countries (English)
See More +
JUN 08, 2015 WPS7294 Policy Research Working Paper
How unfair is the inequality of wage earnings in Russia ? estimates from panel data (English)
See More +
JUN 03, 2015 WPS7291 Policy Research Working Paper
Inequality of outcomes and inequality of opportunity in Tanzania (English)
See More +
MAY 11, 2015 WPS7260 Policy Research Working Paper
DECPG global daily economic news (English)
See More +
MAY 06, 2015 96669 Newsletter
Measuring inequality from top to bottom (English)
See More +
APR 13, 2015 WPS7237 Policy Research Working Paper
Panama - Country partnership framework FY2015-21 : chair summary (English)
See More +
APR 07, 2015 95633 Board Summary
Equality of opportunity : theory and evidence (English)
See More +
MAR 20, 2015 WPS7217 Policy Research Working Paper
No condition is permanent : middle class in Nigeria in the last decade (English)
See More +
MAR 16, 2015 WPS7214 Policy Research Working Paper
Ex ante poverty and fiscal evaluation of a guaranteed minimum income programme in Greece (English)
See More +
JAN 10, 2015 97840 Working Paper
Born with a silver spoon : inequality in educational achievement across the world (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2015 WPS7152 Policy Research Working Paper
Gender inequality and growth: the case of rich vs. poor countries (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2015 WPS7172 Policy Research Working Paper
Economic mobility in Europe and Central Asia : exploring patterns and uncovering puzzles (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2015 WPS7173 Policy Research Working Paper
Estimating parameters and structural change in CGE models using a Bayesian cross-entropy estimation approach (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2015 WPS7174 Policy Research Working Paper
Long-run effects of democracy on income inequality : evidence from repeated cross-sections (English)
See More +
JAN 01, 2015 WPS7153 Policy Research Working Paper
Party age and party color : new results on the political economy of redistribution and inequality (English)
See More +
DEC 01, 2014 WPS7129 Policy Research Working Paper