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Educational Underachievement Among Boys and Men (English)

This report takes stock of educational underachievement among boys and men, examines the evidence on contributing factors, and explores what has been done to address the phenomenon. While female underrepresentation in secondary and tertiary education remain a significant issuein some, particularly low-income, countries, more than 100 countries have lower levels of male secondary and tertiary education enrollment and completion. Learning poverty rates—the proportion of children unable to read and understand a simple text at 10 years of age—are higher for boys than for girls in all regions and almost all countries of the world. Across various grades and subjects, in many countries boys tend to have poorer learning outcomes than girls, with substantial differences in some countries, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, as regularlydemonstrated in international assessments of student learning. For high-income countries, this is not a new development—it has been readily acknowledged and discussed in the literature since the 1990s. What has become increasingly common is the observance of this gap in middle-incomecountries as well.


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    Welmond,Michel J., Gregory,Laura

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    The World Region,

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    Educational Underachievement Among Boys and Men

  • Keywords

    Progress in International Reading Literacy Study; take stock; official school-age population; low levels of participation; access to secondary education; primary gross enrollment ratio; secondary gross enrollment ratio; data collection and analysis; Primary and Secondary Education; Quality Education for All; social benefits of education; terms of education; years of schooling; gender parity index; tertiary education enrollment; quality of education; student learn outcome; enrollment by gender; absence of woman; participation in education; secondary education level; proportion of male; gap between boys; education for girl; lower secondary level; Access to Education; gap between girl; instruction in science; collaborative problem solving; secondary school graduation; higher education level; compulsory educational level; improvement in productivity; achievement in education; faculty of education; male role model; teacher training college; need of student; human capital formation; secondary education enrollment; human capital development; share of children; Gender and Education; growth in enrollment; labor market perspective; privileges and immunity; fields of study; young men; available data; Gender Gap; Learning and Innovation Credit; educational achievement; tertiary level; recent years; education systems; Basic Education; educational opportunity; dropout rate; school child; tertiary enrollment; research group; poverty indicator; learning level; science discipline; Student Assessment; annual productivity; educational outcome; educational participation; research agenda; in school; classroom climate; poverty datum; test score; gender stereotype; money matter; role models; peer group; political consequence; social network; educational development; safe environment; lower rate; school community; Vocational Education; juvenile delinquency; socioeconomic factors; analytical approach; lifetime income; employment opportunity; female access; gender education; economic instability; educational performance; overall enrollment; social inequality; risky behavior; employment opportunities; employment prospect; poor health; community cohesion; achievement gap; social disadvantage; low-income household; educational investment; family formation; gender group; life chances; future worker; professional practice; academic research; international level; education authority; equity dimension; moral imperative; thematic studies; annual production; school leadership; male education; boy girls; social indicator; school closure; low-income woman; subsidiary right; school completion; academic performance; male student; high poverty; aged woman; subject area; school life; women engineer; female graduate; school climate; higher-income countries; student learning; international assessment; achievement level; data bank; graduate education; data gathering; community college; secondary enrollment; school reading; potential barrier; minimum share; recent change; finding work; reading level; historical pattern; richer countries; participation rate; education process; noncommercial purposes; average distance



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Welmond,Michel J. Gregory,Laura

Educational Underachievement Among Boys and Men (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.