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Peaceful coexistence : the role of religious schools and NGOs in the growth of female secondary schooling in Bangladesh (English)

Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), a non-governmental organization (NGO), runs a large number of non-formal primary schools in Bangladesh which target out-of-school children from poor families. These schools are well-known for their effectiveness in closing gender gap in primary school enrolment. On the other hand, registered non-government secondary madrasas (or Islamic schools) today enroll one girl against every boy student. In this paper, the authors document a positive spillover effect of BRAC schools on female secondary enrolment in registered madrasas. Drawing upon school enrolment data aggregated at the region level, the authors first show that regions that had more registered madrasas experienced greater secondary female enrolment growth during 1999-2003, holding the number of secular secondary schools constant. In this context, the authors test the impact of BRAC-run primary schools on female enrolment in registered madrasas. The authors deal with the potential endogeneity of placement of BRAC schools using instrumental variable approach. Controlling for factors such as local-level poverty, road access, and distance from major cities, regions with a greater presence of BRAC schools have higher female enrolment growth in secondary madrasas. The effect is much bigger when compared to that on secondary schools.


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    Asadullah,M Niaz, Chaudhury,Nazmul

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    Journal Article

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    South Asia,

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    Peaceful coexistence? : the role of religious schools and NGOs in the growth of female secondary schooling in Bangladesh

  • Keywords

    female enrolment;Poverty Reduction & Economic Management;policy point of view;Primary and Secondary Education;public health care system;delivery of health services;Campaign for Popular Education;conditional cash transfer program;access to secondary education;female student;primary school enrolment;closing gender gap;types of school;number of girls;regional growth rate;positive spillover effect;international donor community;corruption in government;health system management;primary education service;school enrolment data;missing in action;department of economics;quality control mechanism;international donor funding;evidence of convergence;high growth rate;religious secondary school;secondary school quality;providers of education;education and health;secondary school enrolment;basic education level;development policy;delivery of service;types of service;achieving gender parity;complete primary education;provision of education;education of girl;enrolment of girl;economics of education;primary school sector;determinants of growth;data on student;higher test score;government primary school;enrolment growth;religious school;urban region;higher growth;rural area;average age;local poverty;secondary enrolment;educational institution;road access;natural log;registered school;state aid;world development;Public Services;secondary student;alternative measure;secondary level;health outcome;peaceful coexistence;primary level;capacity constraint;national highway;positive correlation;urban sample;girls school;total enrolment;urban slum;female participation;public provision;Curriculum Reform;random error;noncommercial purposes;public financing;primary sector;non-governmental organization;Education Economics;instrumental variable;high enrolment;initial enrolment;boys school;religious education;female education;secondary sector;alternative education;educational information;observed growth;gender group;underprivileged family;indicator variable;cross-section regression;high school;public subsidy;school selection;social value;life skill;gender disparity;rural learner;primary schooling;fiscal incentive;secondary institution;study period;upward pressure;endogenous variable;educational development;0 hypothesis;marginal effect;institutional analysis;future research;Physical securities;pass grade;production function;effective policies;regular attendance;Teacher Pay;incentive scheme;government capacity;Public Goods;public support;important policy;commercial lending;female schooling;school level;business school;enrolment figure;copyright owner;institutional failure;public system;high probability;private provider;bureaucratic inertia;rural village;public fund;institutional constraint;rural region;sample survey;school girl;distinct phase;government funding;development of literature;enrolment share;marginalized group;pilot school;supply shock;poverty variable;fixed effect;university press;effective schooling;health clinic;health clinics;Domestic NGO;government system;private alternatives;vertical externality;contractual arrangement;political activities;marginalized communities;alternative specification;single-sex school;income growth;regression model;positive impact;descriptive statistic;restricted data;regression sample;cultural factor;common problems;educational outcome;school availability;cultural restriction;school type;statistical significance;age variable;



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Asadullah,M Niaz Chaudhury,Nazmul

Peaceful coexistence : the role of religious schools and NGOs in the growth of female secondary schooling in Bangladesh (English). Author accepted manuscript Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.