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The costs of protectionism to developing countries : an analysis for selected agricultural products (English)

The purpose of this study is to quantify the welfare and foreign exchange costs that arise in developing countries as a result of the protectionist policies pursued by developed countries with respect to many agricultural products. A detailed analysis is presented for four key commodities: sugar, beef, wheat, and maize. For each commodity, the potential gains to developing countries from a complete removal of tariff and nontariff barriers in developed countries are analyzed within the framework of a comparative-static world market equilibrium model. The study considers fifty-eight developing countries as well as seventeen developed countries.


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    Zietz, Joachim Valdes, Alberto

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    Staff Working Paper

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    The World Region,

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    The costs of protectionism to developing countries : an analysis for selected agricultural products

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    supply elasticity;effect of trade;removal of trade barriers;free trade and protection;high real interest rate;elimination of trade barrier;price elasticity of supply;world price;world market price;wholesale price;producer price;protection level;net export;centrally planned economy;nontariff trade barriers;change in welfare;market exchange rate;domestic currency price;balance of payment;response of consumption;net import;raw sugar;foreign direct investment;absence of tariff;export market share;wholesale price index;basis of information;value of trade;elasticity of demand;commodity research;foreign exchange gains;nominal protection rate;fixed exchange rate;partial equilibrium model;ad valorem equivalent;external debt crisis;commercial bank lending;international capital flow;long-term interest rate;public sector indebtedness;role of bank;Balance of Trade;elimination of tariffs;domestic price;domestic demand;world exports;wheat;Exchange Rates;domestic supply;sugar beet;border price;net exporter;simple average;regional impact;net importer;elasticity value;beef price;Macroeconomic Policy;supply response;soft wheat;elasticity assumption;domestic production;stock change;average price;coarse grain;tariff equivalent;sugar production;tariff level;trade protectionism;quota system;boneless beef;trade value;carcass weight;preferential access;welfare change;nontariff barrier;produce trade;debt accumulation;adjustment factor;agricultural product;demand elasticity;historical perspective;external capital;exporting country;security market;management strategy;capital outflow;resource cost;long-term contract;green rate;intervention price;price level;index number;quality measure;model result;conservation value;import data;export share;import demand;individual researchers;relative price;price list;sugar price;beet producer;spot price;price quotation;free access;sugar industry;ruminant meat;beef sector;payment problem;protectionist policy;export earnings;domestic producer;producer surplus;sensitivity analysis;input data;welfare gains;commodity equal;commodity price;parameter value;own-price elasticities;cross-price elasticity;commodity market;beef importer;hypothetical case;relative gain;agricultural sector;Learning and Innovation Credit;base period;budget deficit;Research Support;joint library;farm produce;food trade;research program;export quantity;equilibrium position;external resource;export supply;monopoly rent;marketing margin;tariff reduction;marketing cost;price change;trade elasticity;foreign trade;adequate infrastructure;excess supply;government statistics;population level;wheat flour;conversion rate;geographical distribution;free market;market economy;econometric evidence;gross exports;purchase price;selling price;import value;base year;raw data;world trade;dollar price;government purchase;



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Zietz, Joachim Valdes, Alberto

The costs of protectionism to developing countries : an analysis for selected agricultural products (English). Staff working paper ; no. SWP 769. Series on international capital and economic development ; no. 1 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.