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Demographic and Spatial Disparities in Labor Market Outcomes within the Kinshasa Urban Landscape (English)

This paper examines the labor market and jobs in urban Kinshasa, by drawing on a recently collected household survey and other data sets. It particularly focuses on labor supply and employment patterns, job characteristics, and their spatial nexus. The analysis first shows that female and young workers are more likely to experience unemployment and underemployment than other workers in Kinshasa. Second, the availability of good quality jobs is still limited in Kinshasa. Third, in addition to the scarcity of good jobs, which are concentrated in the city core, poor accessibility due to the limited connective infrastructure and transport system further reduces job opportunities for people living in the outskirts.


  • Author

    Batana,Yele Maweki, Jarotschkin,Alexandra, Konou,Akakpo Domefa, Masaki,Takaaki, Nakamura,Shohei, Viboudoulou Vilpoux,Mervy Ever

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  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

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  • Volume No


  • Total Volume(s)


  • Country

    Congo, Democratic Republic of

  • Region

    Africa East,

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  • Doc Name

    Demographic and Spatial Disparities in Labor Market Outcomes within the Kinshasa Urban Landscape

  • Keywords

    Poverty and Equity; labor force participation rate; high cost of transportation; complete secondary education; use of bank credit; gender gap in education; lower level of education; poverty does; gender gap in employment; higher level of education; average number of jobs; city core; unemployment rate; working-age population; public transportation network; public sector job; female workers; means of transportation; access to job; labor income; terms of education; high unemployment rate; average commuting time; public transport network; accessibility to job; lack of alternative; male labor force; weak regulatory environment; lack of education; lack of connectivity; central business district; place of work; data collection process; fast population growth; high fertility rate; labor force characteristic; mode of transport; burden on woman; household and individual; access to water; private sector job; highly educated women; jobs in agriculture; effects of education; fishing industry; individual labor income; multivariate regression analysis; labor market intervention; cost of living; public works program; household consumption survey; Higher Education; Informal Jobs; paying job; Young Workers; demographic characteristic; employment condition; informal enterprise; economic sector; job opportunities; job opportunity; youth; selection model; geographic characteristic; monthly income; education level; household survey; job characteristic; informal sector; standard error; education attainment; spatial distribution; high concentration; Real estate; living condition; commute time; dependency ratio; disadvantaged worker; study area; poor household; family worker; small fraction; business environment; urban population; job location; demographic group; regression results; new entrant; employment pattern; employment situation; inclusive growth; data quality; gender inequalities; Gender Inequality; population census; transportation cost; other sectors; greater access; enumeration area; tradable good; spatial analysis; global trade; global city; labor status; educational level; educated woman; firm entry; core infrastructure; fewer women; geographic factors; significant challenge; wage level; inadequate infrastructure; job searching; transport subsidy; Affordable Transport; Vocational Training; job fair; political capital; Public Services; high transportation; average pay; transport survey; income source; transportation expenditure; monetary poverty; housing economics; housing rent; open door; comparability issue; indicator function; accessibility index; exchange rate; linear probability; monthly wage; ols model; marital status; demographic variables; informal employment; agricultural production; urban service; private investment; high share; younger cohort; section show; wage employment; informal entrepreneurs; family property; household saving; recreational activity; Exchange Rates; worker increase; commute trip; alternative mean; spatial inequality; private household; employment status; walking distance; income disparity; spatial variation; geographical distribution; labor supply; sampling method; local expert; labor policy; Labor Policies; removing barriers; rural area; high-resolution satellite; sample survey; primary data; satellite imagery; Job Creation; social unrest; poverty eradication; stratified sampling; building density; low density; environmental features; undeveloped areas; market garden; recycled materials; sheet metal; steep slope; drainage system; urban standard; industrial area; social housing; young population; travel survey; Research Support; development policy; open access; Civil War; financial crisis; age structure; survey questionnaire; professional education; poverty incidence; annual consumption; working age



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Batana,Yele Maweki Jarotschkin,Alexandra Konou,Akakpo Domefa Masaki,Takaaki Nakamura,Shohei Viboudoulou Vilpoux,Mervy Ever

Demographic and Spatial Disparities in Labor Market Outcomes within the Kinshasa Urban Landscape (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9856 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.