Skip to Main Navigation

The Global Cost of Inclusive Refugee Education (English)

This report estimates the cost of educating refugee children in the countries in which they currently reside. The cohort-average annual cost of providing education to all refugee students in low, lower-middle and upper-middle income host countries is 4.85 billion US Dollars. A sensitivityanalysis, relaxing model assumptions, suggests the estimate lies in the range of 4.44 billion and 5.11 billion US Dollars. The total financing envelope required to provide K-12 years of education over a 13-year period to 2032 is 63 billion. As data on the impact of COVID-19’s (coronavirus)impact on education costs and public expenditure is still evolving, this paper provides a pre-COVID-19 baseline for the estimated costs of educating all refugee children. The Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) has placed enhanced responsibility-sharing at the center of the international refugee protection agenda. It commits stakeholders to specific measures to achieve that goal, including a proposal to measure their contributions. Thisrequires a standardized and transparent methodology, developed through a participatory process, that can be used across all host countries; and provides the motivation for this work. The report is cognizant of the fact that education in emergencies is not only a humanitarian crisis but also a development crisis with large numbers of refugee children spending their whole education life cycle in displaced settings. These environments are often already stretched to deliver quality education services. Eighty-five percent of the world’s displaced persons are hosted in low and lower middle-income countries. Where refugees are concentrated in border or rural regions, inclusive education systems can direct resources to previously underserved areas in host countries. Inclusive national education systems promote a streamlined response to the large influx of refugees by building resilient systems with benefits for refugees and host communities alike. It creates a framework for the international community to harmonize efforts and share the collective burden and responsibility of refugee education. The costing methodology developed in this report is based on the key premise that refugee education is embedded in the host country education system, facing the same cost drivers and efficiency and quality constraints. This implies that refugee students receive an education that is "no better, no worse" than host country students in terms of teacher quality, school infrastructure, access to learning materials and other inputs. It starts with the public unit cost of education in each country for each level of education. Refugee education coefficients are then added to the unit costs to provide education services essential to the integration ofrefugees into national systems. These services include accelerated learning programmes, psychosocial support, support in the language of instruction, teacher training in refugee inclusiveness and so on. In addition, given the historical levels of low investment in earlychildhood education (ECE), this paper adds an ECE coefficient to primary public unit costs to estimate pre-primary costs for each country. While this paper uses uniform coefficients acrossall countries, these are likely to vary based on the local context.

Details

  • Document Date

    2021/01/01

  • Document Type

    Report

  • Report Number

    156968

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    World,

  • Region

    The World Region,

  • Disclosure Date

    2021/02/24

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    The Global Cost of Inclusive Refugee Education

  • Keywords

    refugee child; Primary and Secondary Education; attending school; conflict and violence; public expenditure on education; unit cost funding formula; legal barrier to entry; community involvement in school; quality of education service; Gender-Based Violence; access to the internet; access to quality education; teaching and learning materials; access to learning material; cost of education; language of instruction; refugee student; annual unit cost; inclusive education system; Access to Education; children and youth; education for all; need of refugee; influx of refugees; years of schooling; education in emergency; efficiency and quality; Early childhood education; annual public expenditure; response to emergency; development of language; Benefits of Education; lack of awareness; investments in education; cost of transportation; conditional cash transfer; support for refugee; quality and quantity; primary school age; number of refugees; data on refugees; impact of refugees; help child; secondary school level; improvements in access; human rights violation; integration of refugees; right to education; annual funding requirement; privileges and immunity; Learning for All; average teacher salary; total public expenditure; private school enrollment; cost of access; barrier to refugee; primary school level; human capital development; country of origin; open source solution; high opportunity cost; basic human right; formal education system; million people; Host Communities; lower secondary; psychosocial support; international community; Forced Migration; Education Services; national system; Education Financing; school system; first year; refugee camp; public education; refugee population; refugee situation; afternoon class; migration study; school child; funding gap; displaced child; informal education; asylum seeker; displaced people; social cohesion; student cost; domestic financing; afternoon shift; double shift; physical disability; psychological trauma; integrated education; global trend; non-governmental organization; school-age child; refugee teacher; school infrastructure; forced displacement; Country Systems; Labor Market; several countries; class time; global education; financing requirement; enrollment figure; home country; children of ages; home countries; cross-country comparison; school attendance; living condition; global estimate; education divide; registered refugees; unregistered refugees; participatory approach; other sectors; schooling year; skill development; future employment; educated refugee; refugee youth; trained teacher; economic crisis; learning center; several constraints; old children; education systems; vulnerable communities; integrated system; Migration Policies; public health; teacher ratio; enrollment projection; education funding; second language; tax credit; school funding; writing skill; parental engagement; immigrant student; national minority; response plan; teacher support; refugee community; teaching resource; formal employment; school material; teaching assistant; mother-tongue literacy; fiscal cost; weighted average; government expenditure; cost data; educational requirement; primary level; education outcome; student data; mother tongue literacy; demographic data; education provision; affected country; temporary shelter; resource mobilization; country expenditure; Fragile Countries; education target; global monitoring; education requirement; tertiary level; school participation; turkish language; education strategy; refugee settings; Higher Education; lifelong learning; long-term planning; formal system; basic numeracy; recreational activity; life skill; education activity; educational institution; research show; qualitative assessment; core subject; education principle; language course; physical illness; classroom instruction; significant loss; accelerated education; learning approach; effective teaching; Basic Education; informal learning; Mental health; local system; financial constraint

Downloads

COMPLETE REPORT

Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)

  • Official PDF
  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *The text version is uncorrected OCR text and is included solely to benefit users with slow connectivity.

Citation

The Global Cost of Inclusive Refugee Education (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/159281614191477048/The-Global-Cost-of-Inclusive-Refugee-Education