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Differences in Household Composition : Hidden Dimensions of Poverty and Displacement in Somalia (English)

Little is known about how gender inequality influences poverty rates of forcibly displaced people. This paper uses a nationally representative survey to analyze poverty among internally displaced people and non-displaced people in Somalia. More than half of internally displaced people’s households and 47 percent of non-displaced people’s households are female headed. Although poverty rates are higher among internally displaced people than non-displaced people (77 versus 66 percent), male-headed households are poorer than female-headed ones among both groups. Extending the analysis beyond headship to demographic characteristics and by the gender and number of earners provides a more nuanced picture. Demographic characteristics are strongly associated with poverty rates for internally displaced people but not for non-displaced people. Having more income earners reduces poverty risk for all households. For internally displaced people’s households, the largest decrease in poverty risk is associated with having more female earners, while having more male earners is associated with the lowest poverty for nondisplaced people’s households. The analysis highlights that poverty reduction policies and programs must cover all households and lift barriers to women’s economic opportunities. Programs that respond to women’s care responsibilities and address barriers to women’s economic opportunities are especially important for internally displaced people.


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    Hanmer,Lucia C., Rubiano Matulevich,Eliana Carolina, Santamaria,Julieth

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    Policy Research Working Paper

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    Africa East,

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  • Doc Name

    Differences in Household Composition : Hidden Dimensions of Poverty and Displacement in Somalia

  • Keywords

    Food Security and Nutrition Analysis; household head; female-headed household; economies of scale in consumption; Federal Government of Somalia; poverty risk; female head; Internally Displaced Person; Internally Displaced People; Below the Poverty Line; social safety net system; High Commissioner for Refugees; education and poverty reduction; income generating activity; income-generating activity; gender division of labor; saving and loan association; gender gap in access; Violations of Human Rights; united nations general assembly; access to basic service; access to humanitarian assistance; female labor market participation; council on foreign relation; million people; risk of poverty; barrier to woman; families with child; poverty and gender; per capita consumption; access to land; chronic food insecurity; high poverty rate; Gender-Based Violence; role of gender; difference in poverty; share of income; source of income; source income; incidence of poverty; public works program; household characteristic; household and individual; fruit and vegetable; humanitarian assistance program; access to job; women with child; formal safety net; loss of asset; area of origin; human-made disasters; poverty reduction policy; delivery of service; intimate partner violence; gender and poverty; understanding of poverty; violence against woman; international poverty line; income from work; low living standard; female genital mutilation; vulnerability to poverty; lack of education; male migrant workers; expenditure per capita; correlation between poverty; sanitation and hygiene; land and housing; dimension of vulnerability; role in society; attitudes about women; formal labor market; peace research; analysis of poverty; degree of poverty; hides and skins; demand for labor; dimension of gender; Forced Migration; Poverty and Equity; nationally representative survey; social protection program; dimensions of poverty; flexible working hour; life skill training; risk and vulnerability; income generation activities; risk of violence; social protection policy; poverty intensity; female headship; household income; demographic composition; income profile; dependency ratio; rural area; demographic characteristic; forced displacement; gender inequalities; Gender Inequality; mobile money; average household; male adult; income category; household poverty; household size; demographic categories; standard error; remittance recipient; household headship; Cash Transfer



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Hanmer,Lucia C. Rubiano Matulevich,Eliana Carolina Santamaria,Julieth

Differences in Household Composition : Hidden Dimensions of Poverty and Displacement in Somalia (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9818 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.