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Health (English)

This is the first study published by the World Bank that is specifically addressed to health issues. Direct lending for health projects has not been part of the Bank's activities, although its operations have influenced health conditions and some projects have included health services. Earlier papers have examined the Bank's policies in fields that significantly influence health conditions, such as water supply and sewerage, population planning and the environment. This paper now attempts a more comprehensive review of the policy relating to health. For this purpose, it: assesses the health situation in developing countries; examines the impact of poverty on ill-health, and of ill-health on economic development; analyzes the trends in health policy in member countries and offers suggestions for reform; and outlines the policy the Bank has decided to follow. Health conditions in developing countries have improved considerably in recent decades. In general, the improvement has been associated with economic progress. But international differences in health levels remain substantial; within nations, differences in the health of the rich and the poor are no less wide. The evidence suggests, furthermore, that health conditions among poverty groups in different countries are basically similar, as the poor suffer from a core of fecally-related and air-borne diseases. Malnutrition increases the susceptibility to many of these diseases, and compounds their severity.


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    average life expectancy at birth;water supply and sanitation facility;population with access to water;water supply and sewerage;public expenditure on health;low per capita income;infant and young child;improvements in water supply;infant and child mortality;fall in birth rate;measure of health status;incidence of disease;sites and services;rapid population growth;curative health care;high fertility rate;public sewer system;sewage disposal facilities;crude death rate;improved water supply;crude birth rate;primary health care;community water supply;improvements in health;health problem;increase in risk;numbers of deaths;high birth rate;deaths among children;threats to health;safe water supply;death of child;impact of poverty;illness and death;investigation of mortality;infant mortality rate;epidemiological consideration;development of water;spacing of birth;care for child;physical health problems;government health expenditure;expenditures on health;modern health care;fast population growth;old age group;irrigation and drainage;life expectancy rate;per capita gnp;water and sewerage;incidence of cholera;impact on health;poor sanitary conditions;survey water;risk of death;iron deficiency anemia;lack of water;high population density;susceptibility to infection;duration of illness;world war ii;intestinal parasitic disease;incidence of diarrhea;primary care personnel;fall in mortality;chlorination of water;movement of people;health care service;extended family system;malaria eradication campaign;consequences of population;diarrheal disease;rural area;Health Service;primary cause;public health;population pressure;socioeconomic development;personal health;socioeconomic progress;water supplies;preventive health;demographic factor;poor health;live birth;family size;infection rate;high mortality;Medical care;health condition;disease pattern;medical doctor;eradication program;rural population;life span;decomposition process;Death rates;community level;anaerobic fermentation;early age;health situation;living condition;health benefit;cultural practice;curative care;harmful effect;health improvement;Health policies;induced abortion;university press;malarial infection;living standard;river water;socioeconomic conditions;fatal diseases;unsanitary condition;pit privy;septic tank;nutritional deficiency;Population Policy;personal hygiene;intestinal infection;effective policies;fatality rate;tetanus infection;public acceptance;common cause;animal manure;hygienic condition;environmental factor;public standposts;medical manpower;ear infection;privy construction;toilet facility;small family;cholera incidence;flush toilet;agricultural activity;cholera control;Natural Resources;water availability;population study;health standards;negative effect;cultural habits;long-term effect;sewage system;chicken coop;human waste;human excreta;personal communication;bacillary dysentery;rural village;clinical symptom;traditional pattern;Widespread Disease;water treatment;clinical disease;harmful bacteria;young age;solid particles;circulatory system;trickling filters;biological cycle;immune response;parasitic infection;adult male;small animals;acute illness;disease cycle;preventive service;labor productivity;Food Silo;medical school;premature infant;survival rate;whooping cough;child morbidity;medical education;comparative cost;urban dweller;high school;enrollment ratio;hospital utilization;water vegetation;environmental condition;population characteristic;technological development;productive investment;surface water;respiratory disease;correlation coefficient;adequate housing;breeding ground;sluice gate;running water;agricultural worker;degenerative disease;demographic trend;Population Planning;health issue;health hazard;clinical case;poor household;effective access;disease spread;land settlement;low-income group;morbidity rate;field experiment;environmental hazard;affluent groups;health resource;poverty group;Cardiovascular Disease;advanced country



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Health (English). Sector policy paper Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.