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Migration from Zambia : ensuring temporariness through cooperation (English)

The paper analyzes migration from Zambia in order to understand how migration policy can support development in the least developed countries. Overall emigration from Zambia is not high by regional standards, but the pattern of migration is skewed toward the skilled and away from the unskilled. A development-friendly approach to migration for Zambia would strive to ensure the temporariness of both types of movement. First, industrial countries may be willing to accept a higher level of unskilled immigration if they could be certain that it is temporary. Second, any adverse effects of brain drain would be greatly alleviated if skilled emigration is temporary. The problem is that host countries cannot unilaterally ensure temporariness of unskilled migration because repatriation cannot be accomplished without the help of source countries like Zambia, and source countries today have little incentive to facilitate the return of the unskilled. At the same time, source countries like Zambia cannot unilaterally ensure temporariness of the skilled because repatriation cannot be accomplished without the help of the host countries, and host countries currently have little incentive to send back the skilled. So, there is a strong case and considerable scope for cooperation between source countries like Zambia and destination countries in the design and implementation of migration policy so that unskilled migration becomes feasible and skilled migration takes a more desirable form.

Details

  • Author

    Amin, Mohammad Mattoo, Aaditya

  • Document Date

    2007/03/01

  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number

    WPS4145

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Zambia,

  • Region

    Africa,

  • Disclosure Date

    2010/07/01

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Migration from Zambia : ensuring temporariness through cooperation

  • Keywords

    source country;local labor market condition;intended duration of stay;recruitment of health professionals;larger inflow of remittances;Primary and Secondary Education;leadership and social capital;Temporary Migration;migrant;Brain Drain;permanent migration;pattern of migration;primarily due;migration for development;provision of information;movement of worker;impact of migration;restrictive immigration policy;standard of living;data on migrants;nature of health;competition with expatriates;transfer of resource;portability of pension;health insurance scheme;composition of migration;health care professional;global labor market;duration of migration;short term visit;level of remittance;management of migration;majority of children;conditions of employment;transfer of knowledge;small business loan;return of migrants;return migrant;human capital;skilled migration;unskilled migration;emigration rate;receiving countries;bilateral agreement;skilled professional;graduation rate;skilled emigration;temporary migrant;working condition;destination country;anecdotal evidence;exchange program;Migration Policies;Higher Education;educational infrastructure;guest worker;return migration;public expenditure;healthcare professional;voluntary return;model agreement;opportunity cost;punitive measure;limited capacity;school school;permanent migrants;laboratory technician;labor mobility;contract worker;permanent residence;short period;binding commitment;sunk cost;pull factor;moral incentive;temporary movement;industrial country;skilled immigration;migration regime;compensation scheme;high probability;high wage;government expenditure;skill shortage;selection bias;immigrant assimilation;Job Matching;political equilibrium;private education;micro-credit scheme;credit constraint;Job Vacancies;risk averse;egalitarian nature;Public Spending;financial difficulties;Tax Exemption;monetary compensation;global welfare;bond system;reciprocal reduction;public health;foreign employers;previous paragraph;investment advice;rural region;effective strategy;development training;theoretical model;remittance behavior;geographic reach;stable employment;professional training;public-private partnership;effective cooperation;empirical evidence;family reunification;workforce planning;education data;Social Sciences;primary year;university student;bilateral treaty;multilateral context;international agreement;skilled personnel;dramatic change;multilateral framework;international cooperation;total stock;healthcare sector;tertiary level;skilled immigrant;mass emigration;migration issues;nursing services;international standard;acceptable standard;increased investment;medical school;mutual interest;level of industry organisation;participating group;unskilled worker;travel agency;Health Workers;nursing school;tertiary schooling;corrective step;Public Healthcare;positive externality;global stock;prospective migrants;empirical study;real wage;mass migration;civil unrest;bureaucratic control;technical college;Social Welfare;fair compensation;transfer amount;migratory flows;remittance transfer;systematic evaluation;immigrant worker;discriminatory tax;international transfer;permanent settlement;permanent return;real income;push factor;welfare gains;old-age pension;political structure;built mechanism;seasonal worker;educated citizen;living condition;trade negotiation;currency devaluation;rising cost;professional isolation;ethnic discrimination;Donor countries;job mobility;security concern;educational support;leadership qualities;business venture;education level;african migrants;outward flow;stated objective;social behavior;voluntary scheme;employment experience;business practice;

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Citation

Amin, Mohammad Mattoo, Aaditya

Migration from Zambia : ensuring temporariness through cooperation (English). Policy, Research working paper ; no. WPS 4145 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/200361468171548289/Migration-from-Zambia-ensuring-temporariness-through-cooperation