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Putting the Green Back in Greenbacks : Opportunities for a Truly Green Stimulus (English)

Can countries reorient their productive capacity to become more environmentally friendly and inclusive? To investigate this question, this paper uses a standard input-output modeling framework and data from 141 countries and regions to construct a new global data set of employment, value-added, greenhouse gas emissions (disaggregated into carbon dioxide and non-carbon dioxide elements), and air pollution (including nine categories of air pollutants such as fine particulate matter multipliers from supply-side investments. The analysis finds that many of the traditional sectors in agriculture and industry have large employment multipliers, but also generate male dominant, lower skill employment, and tend to have higher emissions multipliers. It is in economies dominated by these sectors that trade-offs to a “greener” transition will emerge most sharply. However, the analysis finds substantial heterogeneity in outcomes, so even in these economies, there exist other sectors with high employment multipliers and low emissions, including sectors that are more conducive to female employment. In addition, the analysis finds a high correlation between industries that generate greenhouse gas emissions, which cause long-term climate impacts, and those that generate air pollution, which have immediate harmful impacts on human health, suggesting that policies could be designed to confer longer climate benefits simultaneously with immediate health improvements. The results confirm some of the findings from recent research and shed new light on opportunities for greening economies.

Details

  • Author

    Taheripour,Farzad, Chepeliev,Maksym, Damania,Richard, Farole,Thomas, Lozano Gracia,Nancy, Russ,Jason Daniel

  • Document Date

    2021/07/29

  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number

    WPS9742

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    World,

  • Region

    The World Region,

  • Disclosure Date

    2021/07/29

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Putting the Green Back in Greenbacks : Opportunities for a Truly Green Stimulus

  • Keywords

    ghg emissions; female labor force participation rates; employment multiplier; input-output analysis; marginal propensity to consume; climate co-benefits; impact on habitat loss; emissions of air pollutant; central bank of malta; high level of employment; clean air act amendment; job creation potential; greenhouse gas emission; unit of value; agriculture and industry; source of energy; oil seed crop; economic impact analysis; change in demand; emission type; types of emission; production of commodity; rates of return; value of output; ex post evaluation; globally significant biodiversity; changes in capital; Public Health Emergency; purchase of electricity; education and health; local air pollutant; value-added tax; global economic growth; volatile organic compound; gender and skills; global warming potential; fiscal stimulus package; land use change; loss of carbon; management of forest; crop and livestock; differences in wage; machinery and equipment; Employment and Growth; Climate Change Policy; global climate change; forest carbon sequestration; fine particulate matter; opportunity for governments; local air pollution; measures of impact; social and environmental; fossil fuel producer; adverse distributional impact; global scale; lower emission; sectoral investment; absolute emission; emissions multiplier; Energy Sector; high employment; high emissions; value added; other sectors; construction sector; environmental objective; simple average; investment multiplier; raw milk; forestry sector; energy mix; low employment; Economic Policy; emission datum; value chain; female employment; scale effect; technological progress; cleaner production; environmental damage; green growth; large emission; air transportation; global economy; previous work; high correlation; investment policy; carbon dioxide; emissions intensity; income multiplier; fugitive emission; solid fuel; managed forest; male dominant; productive capacity; Labor Market; organic carbon; emission inventory; input use; Political Economy; supply side; intermediate range; labor share; future research; habitat restoration; environmental implication; manual labor; small country; upper bind; cleaner fuel; economic sector; cattle sector; carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxide; long-term sustainability; sulfur dioxide; cases reported; health effect; industry structure; animal care; present study; clean sector; average emission; economic expansion; pollution emission; relative performance; country ranking; job opportunities; job opportunity; fuel mix; job growth; smaller number; disaggregated estimate; emission performance; production activity; cost structure; small fraction; production cost; livestock product; petrochemical product; overall cost; combustion emission; coal sector; insurance sector; public economics; bovine meat; bovine cattle; fiber crop; sugar beet; sugar cane; regional economics; employment impact; ecological economics; output multiplier; meat product; geographic concentration; energy price; fiscal recovery; industrial activity; environmental regulation; physical science; radiative forcing; marine policy; coastal habitat; global ecology; metal product; social work; Real estate; water transport; transport equipment; electrical equipment; land-use change; ferrous metal; mineral product; plastic products; coal product; paper product; tobacco product; food product; dairy product; vegetable oil; employment creation; social impact; fiscal space; regional dimension; fiscal envelope; pollution abatement; global emission; Trade Policies; Trade Policy; production technology; capital intensity; traditional sector; gender neutral; dirty industry; GHG Intensity; small island; employment effect; gender parity; overall employment; labor policy; Labor Policies; recreational activity; processed food; differential impact; palm oil; natural habitat; global biodiversity; environmental concern; time lag; trade relationship; fixed coefficient; comparative advantage; downstream industry

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Citation

Taheripour,Farzad Chepeliev,Maksym Damania,Richard Farole,Thomas Lozano Gracia,Nancy Russ,Jason Daniel

Putting the Green Back in Greenbacks : Opportunities for a Truly Green Stimulus (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9742 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/204371627567325630/Putting-the-Green-Back-in-Greenbacks-Opportunities-for-a-Truly-Green-Stimulus