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Spending Better to Reduce Stunting in Indonesia : Findings from a Public Expenditure Review (English)

While Indonesia has successfully decreased early childhood mortality, its stunting rates are among the highest in the world; this has lifelong consequences for health, human capital, poverty, and equity. Indonesia has committed significant resources to improving nutrition outcomes; yet, inequalities in coverage and gaps in quality raises the question whether Indonesia is spending enough on stunting-related interventions and whether it is using its resources efficiently. The main objective of this public expenditure review was to assess the level and allocation of stunting-related expenditures. Findings suggest that overall government spending on nutrition is adequate; instead outcomes may depend more on improving efficiency in the use of resources. Most of the recommendations to improve stunting in Indonesia are cross-cutting issues that will have a much broader impact on the quality of public spending overall. The report is organized into five sections. Section one gives introduction. Section two describes the service delivery environment for nutrition in Indonesia, including the Government of Indonesia’s (GOI’s) nutrition strategy, nutrition delivery platforms, access to nutrition-related services, and the main sources of nutrition-related financing. Section three describes the sources of data and methodology used to identify nutrition related expenditures. Section four presents findings from the central and subnational analysis. Section five summarizes key messages and discusses a set of recommendations to help improve the quality of nutrition-related spending.


  • Author

    Hafez,Reem, Pambudi,Eko Setyo, Agustina,Cut Dian Rahmi Dwi

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    East Asia and Pacific,

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  • Doc Name

    Spending Better to Reduce Stunting in Indonesia : Findings from a Public Expenditure Review

  • Keywords

    Infant and Young Child Nutrition; Annual Work Plan and Budget; access to family planning services; Public Financial Management; social health insurance; drinking water management; access to safe water; maternal and child health; national development planning; conditional cash transfer program; quality of public spending; water and sanitation system; iron and folic acid; Early childhood education; food assistance program; budget execution rate; central government spending; national health insurance; pregnant woman; return on investment; general government expenditure; regional development planning; allocation of resource; vitamin a supplementation; central government expenditure; quality of care; access to water; national family planning; early childhood mortality; public health system; malaria in pregnancy; primary health service; primary school child; lower educational attainment; essential health services; increase in labor; primary health care; service delivery arrangement; community health worker; purchasing power parity; use of resources; Social Safety Nets; supplementary feeding program; skilled birth attendance; allocation of expenditure; decentralized service delivery; integrated information system; exchange of information; access to sanitation; middle school education; water user fee; basic health care; improved sanitation facilities; health service personnel; public awareness campaign; households with child; wash water; rural water supply; drinking water networks; village health worker; asset management agency; improvements in health; cost of transportation; delivery targets; access to health; community health center; provision of food; public works department; local water resource; source of funding; social assistance program; reproductive health counseling; education and culture; stimulation and child; nutrition intervention; Antenatal Care; public expenditure; clean water; budget datum; fiscal transfer; village midwife; delivering services; Postnatal Care; food supplementation; home visit; village water; poor household; village fund; health post; women's empowerment; geographic area; staple food; poor child; supplementary food; focus group; old children; nutrition service; community empowerment; increased spending; cost-effective intervention; socioeconomic status; national leadership; micronutrient supplementation; Sanitation Services; nutrition outcome; household access; Social Protection; planning activity; government spent; private midwife; malnourished child; cognitive development; natural capital; subnational expenditure; central expenditure; state budget; behavior change; small-scale water; financial autonomy; performance planning; interpersonal behavior; health awareness; administrative level; research purposes; output level; expenditure information; health department; local regulation; Child protection; financing arrangement; water system; nutritious food; security program; food product; general practitioner; unconditional transfers; financial resource; breastfeeding counseling; calcium supplementation; professional development; Health Workers; contract worker; ministerial regulation; management service; management committee; prevention activities; in work; transfer service; Investment Support; Prenatal Health; chronic malnutrition; Finance Law; earmarked grant; measurement technique; community volunteer; sanitation organizations; nutritional status; heart rate; Childhood development; vaginal delivery; cost center; funds flow; catchment area; administrative structure; balanced diet; budget format; blood sample; several ministries; personal hygiene; health messages; support payment; district hospital; environmental health; outpatient service; transport cost; social accountability; home affairs; water source; Women Empowerment; line item; community water; Water Services; rural village; improved water; cold chain; feeding practice; sectoral approach; government use; postnatal services; blood pressure



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Hafez,Reem Pambudi,Eko Setyo Agustina,Cut Dian Rahmi Dwi

Spending Better to Reduce Stunting in Indonesia : Findings from a Public Expenditure Review (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.