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Tourism : passport to development Perspectives on the social and cultural effects of tourism on developing countries (English)

In the 1960s, spurred by jumbo jets, charter tours, and the growing affluence of the middle classes in Western industrial nations, tourism erupted on a grand scale. This was seen as offering a new opportunity for developing countries to secure foreign exchange and stimulate economic growth. Their sunny climates, sandy beaches, and exotic cultures attracted a stream of vacationers, and resorts multiplied to meet the demand. With the oil crisis and the recession of 1974-75, there was a pause in the growth of tourism. The end of the boom gave new urgency to existing concerns about whether tourism produced sufficient gains for developing countries to justify the investments required. In addition to doubts about whether tourism yielded economic returns commensurate with its economic costs, there was a general questioning of some of the basic assumptions about the relationship between development and economic growth. In the case of tourism, these doubts were reinforced by the belief that it brings larger adverse social and cultural effects than does development of other sectors. In December 1976 the World Bank and Unesco sponsored a seminar to discuss the social and cultural impacts of tourism on developing countries and to suggest ways to take account of these concerns in decision making. This report is a summary of those proceedings with written accounts of those seminars presented.

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Details

  • Author

    de Kadt, Emanuel

  • Document Date

    1984/06/30

  • Document Type

    Publication

  • Report Number

    13375

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    World,

  • Region

    The World Region,

  • Disclosure Date

    2001/04/20

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Tourism : passport to development? Perspectives on the social and cultural effects of tourism on developing countries

  • Keywords

    international tourism statistics;special interest;united nations general assembly;operation of tourism facilities;development of tourism;impact of tourism;per capita income;standard of living;arts and craft;national tourism organizations;limits to growth;growth of tourism;nonrenewable natural resource;Board of Governors;concept of income;transfer of technology;bilateral development agencies;society and culture;mode of transport;port of call;psychological stress;club of rome;social cost-benefit analysis;number of visitors;chamber of commerce;consequences of tourism;number of tourists;sale of land;real estate value;areas of art;cost of promotion;cost of construction;adverse social impact;forces of change;increase in income;national development plan;choice of destination;large tour operators;jobs in tourism;capital goods industry;employment in agriculture;types of cost;balance of payment;third world countries;centrally planned economy;world tourism organization;gross national product;cultural impact;tourism sector;foreign exchange;package tour;local population;industrialized country;host population;Industrialized countries;material benefit;absolute poverty;destination country;social effect;local capacity;development thinking;mass tourism;tourism industry;social structure;social change;national income;Sewage Disposal;price trend;local operator;family head;franchise agreement;Social Welfare;traditional authority;economic independence;tourism enterprise;international investment;uncontrolled development;tourism planning;hotel chain;competitive industry;increased demand;political environment;commodity trade;tourism growth;small country;popular participation;national participation;tourist attraction;adequate information;tour guide;island countries;Host Communities;consumer product;common denominator;mass marketing;small fraction;real cost;natural asset;retrieval system;indigenous culture;water supplies;Cultural Tourism;cultural artifact;tourist area;existing knowledge;international visitor;marketing technique;sociocultural effects;convenience food;travel option;air fare;african art;human relation;relative weight;commercial transaction;extreme poverty;behavior pattern;local resident;trade union;international travel;tourist facilities;domestic travel;tourist demand;seminar papers;class lead;power structure;primary commodity;political structure;mass media;cultural revitalization;tourist enclave;cultural background;indigenous population;living standard;consumption pattern;industrialized world;international economy;domestic industry;cultural identities;general development;environmental deterioration;human dimension;selected reading;economic interpretation;international affair;cases reported;reasonable time;academic institution;population group;travel brochures;productive work;life chances;research priority;religious pilgrimage;country population;natural history;Social Sciences;government service;educational background;Political Economy;human dignity;controversial point;local entrepreneur;sociocultural values;structural adjustment;purchase goods;manufactured export;export industry;export activity;international education;development perspective;middle class;monetary term;individual investor;marketing arrangement;industrial nations;political views;university press;food product;publishing house;food processing;light manufacturing;construction boom;employment generation;young people;community group;local area;economic relation;travel industry;class conflict;cultural nature;monetary equivalent;sociocultural issues;working relationship;political power;material effect;oil crisis;tourism studies;jumbo jet;sandy beaches;sunny climate;science policy;african history;tourism operations;Economic Policy;active intervention;cultural organisation;commodity production;national politics;tourist market;financial resource;prospective gains;cooperative arrangement;regional cooperation;tourist trade;social issue;cultural monument;communist countries

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Citation

de Kadt, Emanuel

Tourism : passport to development Perspectives on the social and cultural effects of tourism on developing countries (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/223271468141894689/Tourism-passport-to-development-Perspectives-on-the-social-and-cultural-effects-of-tourism-on-developing-countries