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Evaluation of the first El Salvador sites and services project : Executive summary (English)

The First El Salvador Sites and Services Project of 1974 is evaluated. The Project was designed to produce 7,000 serviced plots to be sold to low-income urban families who would complete their houses through self-help construction. For the World Bank the Project was innovative, representing one of the first attempts to finance low-cost urban shelter programs on a massive scale. Analysis indicates that the project offers an attractive option to low-income families. The Project is cheap enough to be affordable down to the 20th income percentile, whereas most government programs do not reach below the 50th percentile. The Project also compares favorably in terms of cost-benefit indicators such as internal rate of return and present value. Project design recommendations involve the choice of rural versus urban location, the choice of cities, location within the city, and lower service levels. Project finance recommendations include the provision of larger loans for materials and labor. Project implementation recommendations concern selection procedures and mutual help and self-help provisions. Finally, recommendations are provided for a national urban shelter policy.


  • Author

    Bamberger,J. Michael, Sae-Hau,Umnuay, Gonzalez-Polio, Edgardo

  • Document Date


  • Document Type

    Working Paper (Numbered Series)

  • Report Number


  • Volume No


  • Total Volume(s)


  • Country

    El Salvador,

  • Region

    Latin America & Caribbean,

  • Disclosure Date


  • Disclosure Status


  • Doc Name

    Executive summary

  • Keywords

    housing location;water supply and sewage;production of cash crop;sites and services;informal housing market;place of work;source of employment;mortgage and loan;urban housing stock;mutual help;provision of service;quality of house;provision of shelter;national housing policy;higher income family;per capita income;efficient land use;source income;source of income;effect on consumption;proportion of income;small business loan;return on investment;high population density;cost of construction;types of service;investment in housing;lack of security;high unemployment rate;poor urban family;economies of scale;hours of service;access to water;rate of growth;rates of return;economically active population;total labor force;low-income urban family;project impact;urban population;urban poor;monthly payment;housing program;project costing;house construction;housing cost;building material;community center;rural area;squatter settlement;public lighting;employment generating;rental value;drop-out rate;construction process;turnover rate;community participation;Public Transport;informal sector;socio-economic context;basic necessity;private housing;urban household;community facility;international support;cooperative program;land area;low-income family;social consciousness;administrative problem;community solidarity;earned income;employment generation;social participation;cheap materials;housing quality;project finance;low-income group;present value;net present;traditional housing;government control;wash facility;income housing;land purchase;large loans;housing agencies;regional economics;dwelling units;absolute poverty;selection procedures;unearned income;loan program;production cooperative;international company;existing business;private initiative;project effectiveness;squatter areas;skilled labor;financial arrangement;small family;private program;migrant worker;construction loan;expenditure pattern;purchase agreement;increasing rate;mortgage payment;cash payment;loan repayment;income range;benefit analysis;dramatic change;social solidarity;extended family;rising cost;direct discharge;secondary city;communal water;seasonal migration;political context;participation rate;legal instrument;sewage collection;consumption good;city population;sanitary facility;industrial zone;land cost;employment situation;potential demand;loan portfolio;income decile;negative effect;cement floor;physical environment;living space;community council;public area;housing service;employment model;cut-off point;sanitary service;greater access;economic elite;consumer cooperative;work force;housing strategy;housing demand;economic crisis;housing sector;sale price;Population Growth;quality rating;income generation;wage income;construction impact;organizational form;functioning market;rural community;political awareness;marketing policy;administrative control;innovative aspect;carrying water;young child;land scarcity;tourist trade;organizational goal;storm drains;medical service;interval scale;cost benefit;systematic analysis;Public Services;reasons given;average cost;family expenditures;inadequate provision;low-income housing;alternative employment;city planning;sewage outfall;central city;drainage construction;family spending;family labor;process use;market rate;land acquisition;female head;household income;income transfer;



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Bamberger,J. Michael Sae-Hau,Umnuay Gonzalez-Polio, Edgardo

Evaluation of the first El Salvador sites and services project : Executive summary (English). Urban and regional report,no. URR 8012 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.