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Nicaragua - Poverty assessment : Main report (English)

Nicaragua is a small, open economy that is vulnerable to external and natural shocks. With an estimated Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of US$1000 in 2006, and a total population of 5.2 million, it is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Forty six percent of the population lived below the poverty line in 2005 (while 15 percent lived in extreme poverty), and the incidence of poverty is more than twice as high in rural areas (68 percent) than in urban areas (29 percent). Nicaragua's social indicators also rank among the lowest in the region, commensurate with its relatively low per capita income level. Nicaragua's long-term development vision is set out in its National Development Plan (NDP), 2005-2009, which gives greater importance to economic growth than the strategy document that preceded it. This also serves as its second Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS). The goals of the PRS incorporate the MDGs, and establish medium (2006-2010) to long term targets (2015). By 2005, the country had made satisfactory progress on meeting the PRS/MDG targets for reducing extreme poverty, increasing net primary enrollment, and reducing infant and child mortality. This National Development Plan is being revised by the new government that took office on January 2007, which has expressed interest in maintaining policy continuity in those areas that have shown progress and tackling pending development challenges. These include efforts to improve the country's growth performance while reducing poverty, macroeconomic stability as a necessary, although not sufficient, condition to stimulate growth, and reduce poverty, a special focus on social issues that impact the poorest, including the MDGs, and environmental sustainability. Programmatic priorities for the new administration include a renewed focus on poverty reduction using a multi-sector approach, implementing pragmatic solutions to the energy crisis for the short to medium term; expanding water and sanitation services with environmentally sustainable solutions; sharing economic growth more broadly to tackle hunger, malnutrition and poverty; placing greater emphasis on preventive health and continuing social protection programs; extending illiteracy programs and improving education services, and pursuing municipal decentralization, state modernization, and good governance.


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    Poverty Assessment

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  • Region

    Latin America & Caribbean,

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  • Doc Name

    Main report

  • Keywords

    access to safe drinking water;access to reproductive health services;access to water;rural area;labor force participation rate;infant and child mortality;quality of public spending;access to drinking water;poverty monitoring and evaluation;access to safe water;quality of education service;average level of education;sanitation and hygiene promotion;regional free trade agreement;household access to electricity;public sector wage bill;opportunities for human;extreme poverty;gross enrollment rate;construction of road;reduction of poverty;factor of production;terms of trade;net primary enrollment;drop in poverty;rural development strategy;expenditure in education;area of education;poverty reduction program;access to sanitation;kreditanstalt fur wiederaufbau;infrastructure and services;low literacy rate;working age population;expenditure education;decline in poverty;elasticity of poverty;per capita income;return to education;social protection program;ratio of dependents;source of income;source income;increase in income;impact on poverty;labor force composition;population growth rate;distribution of consumption;Poverty & Inequality;education and health;multilateral debt relief;public primary education;basic social service;social insurance arrangements;per capita consumption;high growth rate;medium size enterprise;high oil price;higher education program;access to capital;per capita term;access to school;road and bridges;incidence of poverty;capacity of household;Electricity Tariff Structure;source of energy;access to health;expenditures on medicines;maternal mortality rate;social assistance spending;central government revenue;secondary completion rate;private primary school;public utility companies;point of departure;household survey data;indicators of welfare;share of woman;peri urban area;equity in access;target for sanitation;waste water treatment;quality of house;investment in road;reconstruction and rehabilitation;local public service;capacity building strategy;public debt sustainability;economies of scale;adjustment of tariff;excessively high price;poor urban dwellers;poor household;descriptive statistic;social spending;paved road;sewage system;agricultural producer;agricultural production;social security;development perspective;natural shock;rural productivity;chronic malnutrition;social program;Macroeconomic Stability;healthcare services;social indicator;labor productivity;strategic change;productive opportunities;electricity network;household consumption;electricity theft;health shock;sanitation infrastructure;health outcome;dependency ratio;indigenous household;public resource;good governance;paying job;Public Services;basic infrastructure;pipe system;Sanitation Services;public action;water provision;program budget;open economy;cellular telephone;state intervention;satisfactory progress;emergency social;investment fund;piped water;policy outcome;targeted intervention;Fiscal Sustainability;welfare indicator;rainy season;donor community;private education;perishable product;communication programs;vulnerable segment;net impact;health consultation;development vision;targeted program;Public Healthcare;donor support;population group;export base;urban service;local participation;quality improvement;inclusive growth;local capacity;cash injection;social infrastructure;consumption subsidies;hygiene practice;secondary road;Education Services;water coverage;municipal decentralization;state modernization;sanitation access;investment level;water vendor;target indicator;privatization agenda;energy theft;increased access;social return;civil participation;utility service;broad access;cluster development;tariff adjustment;budget fragmentation;foreign source;budgetary resource;private investment;political level;Water Services;external market;output price;small producer;recreational facility;export price;security concern;comparing poverty;attending school;high wage;fiscal incidence;institutional framework;potable water;foreign debt



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Nicaragua - Poverty assessment : Main report (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.