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Expanding job opportunities in Ghana (English)

Ghana was, until very recently, a success story in Africa, achieving high and sustained growth and impressive poverty reduction. However, Ghana is now facing major challenges in diversifying its economy, sustaining growth, and making it more inclusive. Most of the new jobs that have been created in the past decade have been in low-earning, low-productivity trade services. Macroeconomic instability, limited diversification and growing inequities in Ghana’s labor markets make it harder for the economy to create more jobs, and particularly, better jobs. Employment needs to expand in both urban areas, which will continue to grow rapidly, and rural areas, where poverty is still concentrated. The current fiscal and economic crisis is heightening the need for urgent reforms but limiting the room for maneuver and increasing pressure for a careful prioritization of policy actions. Going forward, Ghana will need to consider an integrated jobs strategy that addresses barriers to the business climate, deficiencies in skills, lack of competitiveness of job-creating sectors, problems with labor mobility, and the need for comprehensive labor market regulation. Ghana needs to diversify its economy through gains in productivity in sectors like agribusiness, transport, construction, energy, and information and communications technology (ICT) services. Productivity needs to be increased also in agriculture, in order to increase the earnings potential for the many poor who still work there. In particular, Ghana’s youth and women need help in connecting to these jobs, through relevant skills development and services that target gaps in information about job opportunities. Even with significant effort, most of Ghana’s population will continue to work in jobs characterized by low and fluctuating earnings for the foreseeable future, however, and they will need social safety nets that help them manage vulnerability to income shortfalls. More productive and inclusive jobs will help Ghana move to a second phase of structural transformation and develop into a modern middle-income economy.

Details

  • Author

    Honorati,Maddalena, Johansson De Silva,Sara

  • Document Date

    2016/10/20

  • Document Type

    Publication

  • Report Number

    109384

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Ghana,

  • Region

    Africa,

  • Disclosure Date

    2016/10/21

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Expanding job opportunities in Ghana

  • Keywords

    access to external finance;decline in poverty rate;information and communication technology;Technical and Vocational Education;Education and Training Policy;Occupational health and safety;population living in poverty;rate of poverty reduction;access to digital technology;early dropout from school;literacy and numeracy levels;real gross domestic product;access to finance;household enterprise;access to job;lack of property;competitive private sector;early warning system;public sector employment;labor market opportunities;junior high school;availability of data;lack of competitiveness;labor market regulation;labor market outcome;number of jobs;Access to Electricity;economic growth rate;lack of knowledge;real interest rate;household survey data;gap in information;industry and trade;privileges and immunity;Access to Education;private sector activity;change in poverty;social security benefit;innovative financing mechanism;gdp growth rate;Agricultural Value Chain;social security scheme;real exchange rate;change in consumption;formal sector worker;adult literacy rate;transfer of knowledge;maternal mortality ratio;large urban areas;improved water source;labor market entrant;land property rights;Social Safety Nets;quality of job;social security coverage;lack of asset;reduction in poverty;contribution of industry;cost of labor;unit labor costs;public social protection;manufacturing sector;rural area;Job Creation;oil production;Natural Resources;wage employment;rapid urbanization;extreme poverty;informal sector;job opportunities;job opportunity;wage work;inclusive jobs;informal worker;urban policy;total employment;trade service;informal enterprise;labor mobility;high inflation;power supply;fiscal consolidation;Trade Logistics;skill development;public wage;global market;increasing share;wage sector;labor productivity;economic slowdown;processed food;public expenditure;inclusive growth;informal firms;mining industry;policy option;farm activity;farm activities;urban population;Financial Sector;formal employment;adult population;wage worker;clear ownership;household data;labor information;informal entrepreneurs;public space;policy suggestions;modern technology;Macroeconomic Management;Informal Jobs;detailed strategy;living standard;job security;modern economy;Business Climate;master craftsman;apprenticeship training;power crisis;job offer;occupational standard;young people;entrepreneurial opportunity;apprenticeship system;business management;female entrepreneur;national account;labor participation;legal framework;cognitive skill;productive activity;Enterprise Development;public policy;employment structure;urban youth;technology content;cocoa price;statistical service;writing skill;older adult;international cooperation;climatic change;agricultural sector;gold production;investment boom;energy rationing;headcount index;labor-intensive industry;job training;asian countries;subsistence farming;jobs diagnostic;average poverty;younger generation;manufacturing industry;social indicator;gender disparity;education systems;youth population;Child Mortality;rural phenomenon;life expectancy;research assistance;medium enterprise;Public Employment;social stability;Poverty Analysis;income shortfall;middle-income economy;non-governmental organization;census data;export market;financial shock;subsistence agriculture;measuring inequality;sole responsibility;child labor;energy crisis;working-age population;external imbalance;depreciated currency;copyright owner;original work;household consumption;increasing unemployment;commercial purpose;enterprise survey;employment creation;Vocational Training;marketing service;Urban Planning;street vendor;city planning;urban street;young woman;stabilization program;market demand;Basic Education;certified product;increased demand;Wage Bill;Land tenure;enterprise sector;commodity export;small-scale entrepreneurship;unemployment rate;construction sector;high wage;geographical mobility;agricultural work;positive growth

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Citation

Honorati,Maddalena Johansson De Silva,Sara

Expanding job opportunities in Ghana (English). Directions in Development. -- Human Development Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/237991477039577804/Expanding-job-opportunities-in-Ghana