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Cleaner transport fuels for cleaner air in Central Asia and the Caucasus (English)

Combating pollution needs to be based on standards supported by enforced regulatory, and physical infrastructure, not always in place in countries in transition from central planning to a market economy. Policymakers in the Central Asia and the Caucus region, however, are recognizing the need for such steps against pollution, demonstrated by their commitment to phase out lead from gasoline. To support these efforts, the Bank undertook a regional study on cleaner transport fuels for urban quality improvement in the region, recognizing that fuel quality improvements should be linked to broader air quality management, to ensure cost-effectiveness, and in addressing these issues, it is therefore possible to build on economies of scale, avoid duplications, allow the transfer of experience, and facilitate intra-regional trade in petroleum products. This lead to this study's observations, and recommendations. The establishment of continuous monitoring of the "classical" pollutants, should permit comparison with international standards, by monitoring fine particles, airborne lead, and ground-level ozone. In turn, facilities with diagnostic equipment, and qualified technicians should be available, including vehicle registration systems. It is recommended that gasoline lead should be eliminated by 2005, sulfur in gasoline should be limited by 2015, benzene reductions should be phased out, and instead introduce the acceptable diesel sulfur specifications, and standards as in developed countries. Considerations should include the installation of isomer units; reevaluation on the role of refineries in gasoline production; and, fuel-quality specifications in privatization biding documents, should ensure predictability of regulations.

Details

  • Document Date

    2001/08/31

  • Document Type

    ESMAP Paper

  • Report Number

    ESM242

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Europe and Central Asia,

  • Region

    Europe and Central Asia,

  • Disclosure Date

    2010/07/01

  • Doc Name

    Cleaner transport fuels for cleaner air in Central Asia and the Caucasus

  • Keywords

    vehicle fleet;urban air pollution;fuel quality;methyl tertiary-butyl ether;urban air quality management;air quality management strategy;air pollution from transport;fuel quality monitoring;Lead in Gasoline;air quality monitoring data;international organization for standardization;elimination of gasoline lead;gasoline vehicle;unleaded gasoline;catalytic converter;Lead from Gasoline;oxide of nitrogen;monitoring stations;incremental cost;emission from vehicle;elimination of lead;motor octane number;compressed natural gas;vehicle registration system;national environmental action;source of pollution;vehicle fleet characteristic;highway driving condition;cetane improvement additive;vehicle emission standard;fuel standard;fuel specification;private sector financing;cost to consumer;ambient air quality;demand for gasoline;countries in transition;economies of scale;transport fuel consumption;downstream petroleum sector;sustainable energy practice;diesel quality specification;liquefied natural gas;urban environmental problem;air monitoring procedure;exhaust emission standard;public health impact;diesel particulate emission;vehicle emission regulation;vehicle emissions performance;total energy consumption;ambient pollution concentration;pollutants of concern;elevated ambient concentration;linear programming model;conversion of vehicle;vehicle emission level;resistance to change;ministries of environment;air pollution problem;sustainable energy development;aromatics in gasoline;Oil & Gas;environmental health issues;diesel sulfur specification;barrels per day;poor fuel quality;technical assistance program;absorption of lead;air quality problem;gdp growth rate;residual fuel oil;standard and guideline;vehicle emission inspection;sulfur gasoline;international experiences show;sulfur in gasoline;reduction of pollution;cost of vehicle;carbon dioxide;Regional Studies;heavy-duty vehicle;vehicle owner;daily average;vehicular emission;emission measurement;diesel engine;carbon monoxide;cetane number;emission inventory;high-octane gasoline;suspended particle;non-governmental organization;octane requirement;environmental issue;public expenditure;gross emitter;nitrogen dioxide;toxic waste;water quality;risk assessment;aerodynamic diameter;urban dweller;regional strategy;quality fuel;petroleum product;sample collection;regional statistics;sampling strategy;octane demand;sensitivity analysis;boiling point;vehicle manufacturer;lead concentration;base year;fuel demand;city driving;enforcement regime;thermal cracking;ozone level;crude petroleum;octane value;road performance;vehicle maintenance;adverse health;cetane index;international guidelines;vehicle inspection;Intra-regional Trade;dispersion model;epidemiological evidence;exhaust system;fuel requirement;empirical relationship;chemical analysis;budgetary constraint;environmental regulation;unburned hydrocarbon;central laboratory;heavy traffic;damage cost;public awareness;empirical measure;transport emission;benzene ring;technical feasibility;oil producer;land mass;aid agency;market structure;octane booster;multinational bank;longer period;chemical compound;combustion chamber;gasoline composition;chemical process;public education;professional training;aromatic hydrocarbon;heavy oil;vehicle repair;fuel use;feedstock cost;base case;sulfur dioxide;vehicle kilometer;environmental objective;particle size;molecular structure;gasoline production;fuel parameter;gasoline fraction;Oil Pipeline;hot spot;spark plug;exhaust valve;valve-seat problem;heavy load;primary vehicles;cleaner fuel;conversion process;good monitoring;gasoline consumption;carbon atom;effective monitoring;iron deficiency;nutritional condition;branched paraffin;petroleum industry;tax rate;intellectual development;malnourished child;modernization program;emission problems;airborne lead;transitional period;intraregional trade;lead pollution;respiratory disease;mental development;government representative;rural area;population exposure

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Citation

Cleaner transport fuels for cleaner air in Central Asia and the Caucasus (English). Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) ; no. ESM 242 / 01 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/247321468752067873/Cleaner-transport-fuels-for-cleaner-air-in-Central-Asia-and-the-Caucasus