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Labor Markets and Social Policy in a Rapidly Transforming : Caring for Thailand’s Aging Population (English)

Thailand is the second-fastest aging country in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) after Singapore, and it is growing old before it grows rich. Thailand has already made considerable progress in recognizing the ageing challenge and has initiated policy reforms and development programs to address it at both national and local levels. The 2012–16 National Economic and Social Development Plan and, more recently, the 2017–2036 National Strategy, underscore the welfare of older persons as a government priority. At the heart of Thailand’s approach is universal health insurance, supported by a community-based primary health care system with a reliance on volunteers. Thailand is now working to expand access to long-term care (LTC) at the community level as part of this volunteer-supported primary health care system. This report was prepared based largely on secondary sources, given the limitations on travel during 2020. It makes use of the comprehensive results of the Survey of Older Persons in Thailand, as well as excellent studies produced by various government, non-government, and academic authors. Nevertheless, in preparing the report the authors noted considerable data gaps, especially on private sector services, costs and usage, labor force, and projections of future demand for care. The team fact-checked the report with various country and sector experts; however, it should be considered a preliminary overview of the current situation. Additional data and consultation are needed to elaborate on the recommendations provided in this report.


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    Glinskaya,Elena E., Walker,Thomas, Wanniarachchi,Thisuri Jinadhi

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    East Asia and Pacific,

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    Labor Markets and Social Policy in a Rapidly Transforming : Caring for Thailand’s Aging Population

  • Keywords

    old person; aged care; activities of daily living; disability-adjusted life-years; elder care; primary health care system; national health; elderly population; care service; income source; Fee-Based Services; Technical and Vocational Education; primary health care services; lower level of education; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; gains in life expectancy; higher level of education; female labor force participation; institutional care; access to care; flow of fund; proportion of woman; community support systems; basic health care; rural area; elderly woman; adult children; Health Promotion; source of income; source income; Elderly People; new employment opportunity; old age allowance; average household income; limitations on travel; social insurance program; private sector service; Universal Health Care; marital status; elderly person; health care needs; mental health conditions; macroeconomic and fiscal; old age group; availability of care; share of woman; social protection system; growth and development; old people; chronic illness; national poverty line; constraints on access; concept of universality; relative poverty rate; labor market opportunities; need for service; long-term care; acute medical care; availability of resource; community health care; home care; private health insurance; support to family; lack of interest; continuum of care; change in income; low fertility rate; population share; social welfare services; future demand; private market; living alone; longer life; pension scheme; rural elderly; benefit amount; daily activity; need of care; living arrangement; health status



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Glinskaya,Elena E. Walker,Thomas Wanniarachchi,Thisuri Jinadhi

Labor Markets and Social Policy in a Rapidly Transforming : Caring for Thailand’s Aging Population (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.