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Violent conflict and gender inequality : an overview (English)

Violent conflict, a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape, has lasting impacts on human capital, and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has focused almost exclusively on sexual and gender-based violence. The authors show that a far wider set of gender issues must be considered to better document the human consequences of war and to design effective postconflict policies. The emerging empirical evidence is organized using a framework that identifies both the differential impacts of violent conflict on males and females (first-round impacts) and the role of gender inequality in framing adaptive responses to conflict (second-round impacts). War's mortality burden is disproportionately borne by males, whereas women and children constitute a majority of refugees and the displaced. Indirect war impacts on health are more equally distributed between the genders. Conflicts create households headed by widows who can be especially vulnerable to intergenerational poverty. Second-round impacts can provide opportunities for women in work and politics triggered by the absence of men. Households adapt to conflict with changes in marriage and fertility, migration, investments in children's health and schooling, and the distribution of labor between the genders. The impacts of conflict are heterogeneous and can either increase or decrease preexisting gender inequalities. Describing these gender differential effects is a first step toward developing evidence-based conflict prevention and postconflict policy.


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    Buvinic, Mayra Das Gupta, Monica Casabonne, Ursula Verwimp, Philip

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    Policy Research Working Paper

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    The World Region,

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    Violent conflict and gender inequality : an overview

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    Violent Conflict;War;poor access to health facility;Human Development and Gender;domestic violence against woman;access to health care;rural to urban migration;gender division of labor;higher incidence of poverty;violent conflict and poverty;Civil War;impact of conflict;Sexual Violence;traditional gender roles;exposure to violence;cycle of violence;labor force participation;Internally Displaced People;impact on child;consequences of conflict;Posttraumatic Stress Disorder;years of schooling;forms of gender;infant mortality rate;poor mental health;loss of earnings;lack of evidence;incidence of diarrhea;response to shock;impact on health;child in school;schooling of girl;rural labor market;redistribution of asset;loss of asset;episodes of violence;human capital accumulation;disease control effort;number of refugees;types of violence;form of saving;human rights watch;domestic sexual violence;intensity conflict;household and individual;increase in mortality;young adult men;age at marriage;world health organization;men and child;hiv prevalence rate;loss of income;place of origin;information on gender;Internally Displaced Person;country of residence;dynamics of conflict;intensity of conflict;role of gender;labor market outcome;reproductive health consequences;intimate partner violence;household fixed effect;mental health outcomes;loss of men;chance of survival;opportunity for woman;local collective action;terms of education;education and literacy;economic shock;gender inequalities;Gender Inequality;household income;household survey;empirical literature;male mortality;adaptive response;income loss;empirical evidence;child stunting;



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Buvinic, Mayra Das Gupta, Monica Casabonne, Ursula Verwimp, Philip

Violent conflict and gender inequality : an overview (English). Policy Research working paper ; no. WPS 6371 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.