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The determinants of wealth and gender inequity in cognitive skills in Latin America (English)

Wealth and gender inequity in the accumulation of cognitive skills is measured as the association between subject competency and wealth and gender using the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment. Wealth inequity is found to occur not through disparate household characteristics but rather through disparate school characteristics; little evidence is found of an association between wealth and competency within schools. Weak evidence is found of wealth mitigating gender differences through school characteristics. These findings suggest that wealth inequity in the accumulation of cognitive skills is almost exclusively associated with disparate school characteristics and that disparate school characteristics may play a role in accentuating gender inequity.


  • Author

    Barrera,Felipe, Guaqueta Ospina,Juliana, Macdonald,Kevin Alan David, Patrinos,Harry Anthony, Porta Pallais,Emilio Ernesto

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  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

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  • Country

    Latin America,

  • Region

    Latin America & Caribbean,

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  • Doc Name

    The determinants of wealth and gender inequity in cognitive skills in Latin America

  • Keywords

    quality of education;data on student achievement;human capital and growth;education quality improvement;data needs;female wage differentials;gender difference;cognitive skill;level of wealth;fixed effect model;education policy maker;allocation of resource;inequity across country;early childhood experience;labour market outcome;equality of opportunity;access to school;fixed effect method;international student assessment;probability density function;global development network;quality public school;barriers in access;student background characteristic;item response theory;estimation of equation;household characteristic;gender inequity;household wealth;wealth index;poor household;standard deviation;Gender Gap;standard error;assessment framework;comparator country;rural area;subject area;quality school;cognitive achievement;gender disparity;Private School;expected value;linear function;random variable;intergenerational transmission;population model;rural location;school choice;school resource;equity flow;test item;sampling design;functional form;production function;student response;education planner;international assessment;learning need;marginal effect;cultural change;wealthy student;wealth distribution;mathematics competency;economic model;income gap;social policies;alternative mean;empirical economics;wage discrimination;reading literacy;labour force;wage inequality;cognitive development;sampling variance;test score;educational equity;regression coefficient;analytical method;Economic Society;Gender Equality;Basic Education;educational institution;learning policy;education strategy;wage earnings;household asset;background variable;rural female;Wealth Disparity;low-income household;upward mobility;gender inequalities;Gender Inequality;future education;Health Service;socioeconomic status;retention rates;school attainment;school size;education level;basic model;rural community;high school;household effects;policy formulation;school subsidy;distribution function;family background;collected data;measure of use;aggregate performance;individual level;selection bias;social policy;household income;causal relationship;school selection;wealth quintile;school system;child's ability;school quality;school factor;vertical line;wealth inequality;bottom quartile;causal effect;solid line;household factor;socioeconomic background;individual household;conditional expectation;gender group;



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Barrera,Felipe Guaqueta Ospina,Juliana Macdonald,Kevin Alan David Patrinos,Harry Anthony Porta Pallais,Emilio Ernesto

The determinants of wealth and gender inequity in cognitive skills in Latin America (English). Policy Research working paper ; no. WPS 5189 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.