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Mama Knows (and Does) Best : Maternal Schooling Opportunities and Child Development in Indonesia (English)

This paper leverages quasi-experimental variation in increased access to basic formal education, introduced by a large-scale school construction program in Indonesia in the 1970s, to quantify the benefits to the children of women targeted by the program. Novel and rich data allow the analysis of a range of health, cognitive and socio-emotional development outcomes for children ages 6 to 8 in 2013. The paper finds that increased maternal access to schooling has positive and multidimensional effects on children. The effects are particularly salient at the bottom of the distributions of outcomes. Drawing on insights from economics, psychology, and sociology, the paper examines pathways for these impacts. Evidence suggests that mothers who were exposed to more schooling opportunities during childhood demonstrate less hostility toward their children when parenting and also invest more in their children's preschool education.


  • Author

    Hasan,Amer, Nakajima,Nozomi, De Almeida Rangel,Marcos

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  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

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  • Region

    East Asia and Pacific,

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  • Doc Name

    Mama Knows (and Does) Best : Maternal Schooling Opportunities and Child Development in Indonesia

  • Keywords

    Strategic Impact Evaluation Fund; low levels of education; primary school completion rate; school-age child; short period of time; analysis of migration patterns; complete primary education; difference in difference estimate; public investment in education; Levels of Educational Attainment; water and sanitation program; infant and young child; maternal education; school construction program; access to schooling; Early Childhood Development; years of schooling; complete primary school; child health outcomes; inventory of activities; effects of education; Early childhood education; measure of use; difference in outcomes; human capital investment; fruit and vegetable; oils and fat; effects on development; school enrollment rate; shortness of breath; division of labor; linear probability model; primary education completion; migration of mothers; Access to Education; basic literacy skill; primary school construction; case of health; school age child; gap in education; acute food shortage; impact on child; risk of poverty; height for age; increase in height; tests of mathematics; channels of transmission; lower educational attainment; low birth weight; point estimate; Child development; descriptive statistic; social competence; birth cohort; dietary diversity; bottom quartile; school expansion; intergenerational impact; child outcome; emotional maturity; educational outcome; standard error; standard deviation; physical health; rural area; schooling opportunity; child's age; cognitive skill; cognitive ability; low birthweight; child's ability; treatment effect; school readiness; empirical model; children's development; abstract reasoning; immunization rate; indicator function; developmental outcomes; increased access; program effect; low dose; cognitive development; low intensity; school year; emotional development; household level; young adult; school service; future productivity; cognitive function; socio-economic status; Time of Use; survey instrument; empirical work; daily activity; economic model; behavior problem; birth registration; language skill; social skill; educational intervention; peer relationship; school activity; old mothers; base assessment; younger kid; somatic complaint; social withdrawal; negative behavior; evaluation design; behavioral development; multiple dimension; emotional problem; chronic malnutrition; Stunted Growth; emotional symptom; disease causes; household survey; education level; acute malnutrition; construction material; basic numeracy; know how; knowledge domain; phonological awareness; helping behavior; child work; motor skill; Population Density; demographic characteristic; registry data; positive impact; labor productivity; social return; policy target; continuous measure; indicator variable; emotional skill; upward mobility; government intervention; downward mobility; older generations; mobility pattern; rural district; long-term impact; potential threat; age restriction; Elementary Education; development policy; play music; wealth distribution; live birth; educated men; educational activities; basic skill; children of ages; test score; open access; sample mean; Research Support; educational opportunity; Education Policy; program evaluation; public policy; positive relationship; education opportunity; econometric model; household wealth; health history; collected information; order quantity; math skill; parent-child interaction; western society; educational achievement; rear practice; childrens development; Social Sciences; causal impact; old children; empirical evidence; parental investment; empirical estimate



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Hasan,Amer Nakajima,Nozomi De Almeida Rangel,Marcos

Mama Knows (and Does) Best : Maternal Schooling Opportunities and Child Development in Indonesia (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9355 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.