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Occupational Sex Segregation in Agriculture : Evidence on Gender Norms and Socio-Emotional Skills in Nigeria (English)

Occupational sex segregation is a key driver of the gender gap in earnings. Using data from 11,691 aspiring agribusiness entrepreneurs across five states in Nigeria, this paper explores the gender gap in the sectoral choice decision, and especially the role played by norms around gender roles. When given a choice of 11 agricultural value chains in a government program, the majority (54 percent) of the entrepreneurs chose to enter into poultry, a value chain with relatively lower profit potential, and women were more likely to choose poultry than men. This paper finds evidence of more restrictive gender norms in Northern States, which lowers women’s likelihood of crossing over to potentially more lucrative value chains. The gender gap in sectoral choice is also attributed to differences in work experience especially in agricultural activities and in the chosen value chain, as well as in land ownership and differential access to tertiary-level education. The paper shows that women with more experience in male-dominated value chains exhibit lower self-efficacy, which could reflect the challenges they face when deviating from social norms to operate within these sectors.

Details

  • Author

    Das,Smita, Delavallade,Clara Anne, Fashogbon,Ayodele Emmanuel, Ogunleye,Wale Olatunji, Papineni,Sreelakshmi

  • Document Date

    2021/06/10

  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number

    WPS9695

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Nigeria,

  • Region

    Africa West,

  • Disclosure Date

    2021/06/10

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Occupational Sex Segregation in Agriculture : Evidence on Gender Norms and Socio-Emotional Skills in Nigeria

  • Keywords

    value chain; gender innovation lab; agricultural productivity enhancement; access to tertiary education; equal representation of woman; better access to market; better access to information; emotional skill; Agricultural Value Chain; crossing over; exposure to poultry; local government area; access to capital; gender earnings gap; behavior for woman; market exchange rate; traditional gender roles; Declaration of Interests; support to beneficiary; college of agriculture; complete secondary education; terms of skills; senior secondary education; female labor supply; staple food crop; responsibilities for women; work in process; male role model; difference in outcomes; woman business owner; Gender Gap; gender norm; personal belief; work experience; baseline survey; Land Ownership; exposure quartile; occupational segregation; negative correlation; market opportunity; business sector; production segment; gender difference; eligibility criterion; household income; cash crop; explanatory variable; standard error; agricultural activity; business opportunity; business training; household size; regional variation; sample result; marginal effect; marital status; community norms; community beliefs; market segment; empirical evidence; Labor Market; Mental health; traditional environments; tertiary level; household characteristic; domestic environment; agricultural yield; female respondent; interpersonal skill; work status; recent studies; married man; over production; longer distance; Homebased Work; working woman; regression results; explanatory factors; property right; other asset; business network; transport good; profitable sector; technology adoption; positive correlation; seed selection; output market; new market; extension service; tenure security; small sample; restricted access; composite index; principal component; internal consistency; social customs; poultry farming; program selection; family labor; fewer child; program eligibility; land size; male applicants; monthly profit; crop farm; gestation period; agricultural land; media outlet; social network; quantitative survey; collected information; scale farmer; value addition; demographic characteristic; employment status; new product; social media; labor activity; labor outcomes; present subgroup; collected data; coefficient estimate; broader community; entrepreneurship opportunity; social sanctions; open access; development policy; cost analysis; in work; business value; application process; profitability analysis; social group; Research Support; sex segregation; enterprise sector; study design; employment flexibility; agriculture sector; labor economist; employment option; high concentration

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Citation

Das,Smita Delavallade,Clara Anne Fashogbon,Ayodele Emmanuel Ogunleye,Wale Olatunji Papineni,Sreelakshmi

Occupational Sex Segregation in Agriculture : Evidence on Gender Norms and Socio-Emotional Skills in Nigeria (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9695 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/307211623358663225/Occupational-Sex-Segregation-in-Agriculture-Evidence-on-Gender-Norms-and-Socio-Emotional-Skills-in-Nigeria