Skip to Main Navigation

Providing water to poor people in African cities : lessons from utility reforms (English)

Africa's urban population will triple by 2050. People in these rapidly growing cities need safe, convenient, and reliable water supplies. However, the proportion of Africa's urban population with improved water supply has barely grown since 1990. Research shows that water piped to the premises is the standard to ensure adequate health (families who rely on water carried from shared taps often do not get enough water for basic needs). Yet the share of the urban population with water piped to their premises has declined, from 43 percent in 1990 to 33 percent in 2015. Poor families are the least likely to have water piped to their premises, and the fact is that income levels remain low for many city-dwellers. The most vulnerable, therefore, will bear the brunt of the inadequacy of water supplies.


  • Document Date


  • Document Type

    Working Paper

  • Report Number


  • Volume No


  • Total Volume(s)


  • Country


  • Region


  • Disclosure Date


  • Disclosure Status


  • Doc Name

    Providing water to poor people in African cities : lessons from utility reforms

  • Keywords

    delivering water supply;Demographic and Health Survey;piped water;amount of capital expenditure;reliability of water supply;international organization for standardization;improved water;household survey data;Water Services;improved water supply;sources of water;water from pipe;debt service payment;capital investment financing;fresh water resource;operating cash flow;improving water service;geographic information system;affordability of water;hours of water;capital expenditure finance;amount of investment;progressive tariff structure;number of connections;infrastructure service;provision of service;poor water quality;block tariff structure;rights of way;demand for water;managing water supply;longitudinal data set;availability of water;access to water;pattern of settlement;political economy factor;amount of water;international financial institution;average water tariff;Political Economy Analysis;improved water source;public water point;quantity of water;line of defense;reliable water supply;water pipe;public tap;nonrevenue water;poor household;external stakeholder;informal settlement;urban population;financial barrier;private operator;research show;staff productivity;supply reliability;rapid urbanization;water sector;institutional form;dug well;internal capability;poor community;finance strategy;water allowance;improved service;income data;case studied;Sanitation Services;sustainable access;water connection;photo credit;security situation;income people;production capacity;local stakeholder;good performance;loan financing;national utility;effective service;treatment system;unplanned settlements;commercial loss;legal tenure;foreign management;investment program;monitor performance;corporate culture;concessionary loan;truck delivery;high tariff;city council;city study;clear rules;distribution network;utility infrastructure;independent board;water utility;individual utility;statistical validity;good sanitation;expert judgment;utility model;data quality;utility performance;management structure;potable water;urban water;resource scarcity;wastewater utility;excessive price;carrying water;urban poor;formal utility;financial self-sufficiency;ugandan shilling;transfer service;mobile money;applicable law;fragile states;monthly income;income growth;rural income;utility operating;coverage ratio;physical losses;urban income;water vendor;monopoly power;utility finance;subsidiary right;city population;financial strategy;financial strategies;saharan africa;common feature;common cause;water utilities;meter reading;audit system;Water Shortage;arid climate;tariff increase;informal land;equitable access;governance effectiveness;affordable water;emergency need;controlled price;small entrepreneur;adequate tariff;yard tap;adequate health;brand loyalty;call center;governance problem;standard definition;future research;private provider;fragile environment;political support;small-scale providers;wash water;professional experience;residential consumption;service arrangement;community needs;geographic area;municipal utility;labor productivity;consultative committee;performance contract;related contract;



Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)

  • Official PDF
  • TXT*
  • Total Downloads** :
  • Download Stats
  • *The text version is uncorrected OCR text and is included solely to benefit users with slow connectivity.


Providing water to poor people in African cities : lessons from utility reforms (English). Water and sanitation program report,Water and sanitation program (WSP) Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.