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Pollution reduction without formal regulation : evidence from Bangladesh (English)

This paper evaluates the significance of exogenous technical change and informal regulation in Bangladesh, which has had little formal environmental protection. The analysis draws on a survey of industrial facilities in two pollution-intensive sectors, fertilizer and wood pulp. Four of the five urea fertilizer plants in Bangladesh have been surveyed, along with a super-phosphate fertilizer plant and two large pulping facilities. All are public sector enterprises, managed by the Bangladesh Chemical Industries Corporation (BCIC). They have widely varying ages, and are evenly distributed between urban and rural settings in locations scattered throughout Bangladesh. Section 1 sets the stage for the analysis by describing Bangladesh's industrial pollution problem, its standing in public opinion, and the institutions which have significance for environmental policy. Section 2 examines the clean technology question, while Section 3 considers the pattern of community cleanup pressure and enterprise response. The final section provides a summary, conclusions, and an agenda for more comprehensive research.

Details

  • Document Date

    1993/01/01

  • Document Type

    Departmental Working Paper

  • Report Number

    41046

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Bangladesh,

  • Region

    South Asia,

  • Disclosure Date

    2010/07/01

  • Doc Name

    Pollution reduction without formal regulation : evidence from Bangladesh

  • Keywords

    community pressure;emission per unit of output;urea fertilizer plant;pollution intensity;per capita income level;monetary compensation;industrial pollution;cleanup effort;formal regulation;concentration of chlorine;waste into river;urban air pollution;impact of water;Public Sector Enterprises;means of escape;water treatment process;private sector operation;ion exchange facility;informal regulatory system;national regulatory system;population growth rate;human resource requirement;damage to fisheries;investment in waste;biological oxygen demand;shortage of funds;paddy field damage;industrial pollution control;compensation for damage;choice of technology;environmental regulation;fish kill;waste treatment;pollution reduction;employment alternative;survey results;downstream communities;industrial facility;negotiated settlement;Donor countries;ph level;International Trade;informal regulation;environmental standard;air emission;employment option;high pollution;pulp mill;environment department;background variable;environmental issue;absorptive capacity;donor agencies;steel industry;property right;technology choice;asymmetric information;social pressure;environmental concern;irrigation water;empirical findings;world regions;regulatory response;land area;industrial production;water hyacinth;industrial process;environmental restriction;crop damage;regulatory approach;regulatory standard;public awareness;donor assistance;pollution havens;legal support;negotiated agreement;environmental interests;aid donor;Loan policies;institutional infrastructure;real gdp;enterprise survey;effluent treatment;industrial sector;Legal Services;large fish;new equipment;foreign assistance;local regulation;toxic pollution;paddy damage;non-governmental organization;industrial complex;survey period;good information;emission standard;limited resources;waste water;community representative;spring water;enforcement power;downstream population;downstream fish;land mass;rural setting;Global Warming;mangrove forest;clean operation;important policy;public issue;administrative region;optimal pollution;pollution standard;water pollutant;steam stripping;regulatory arrangement;effluent discharge;rural area;sulphuric acid;calcium hydroxide;community cleanup;process information;affected communities;pollutant concentration;health threat;Clean Technology;high pressure;educate elite;pollution source;Environmental Policy;pollution intensive;downstream village;environmental performance;short distance;clean production;process use;separation process;Soda Ash;toxic pollutant;industrial economy;affected villages;semi-chemical pulping;pulp production;sulphur dioxide;suspended solid;environmental control;urea facilities;carbon dioxide;nitrous oxide;steam reforming;

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Citation

Pollution reduction without formal regulation : evidence from Bangladesh (English). Environmental department divisional working papers ; no. 1993-39 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/330841468768626234/Pollution-reduction-without-formal-regulation-evidence-from-Bangladesh