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Industry and the environment : Patterns in World Bank lending (English)

A significant amount of World Bank lending has been for industrial sector development. This has taken two forms-the first is direct lending to state enterprises, and the second has been via lending to development finance companies (DFCs) for industrial development. On average, in the 1970s, about 17 percent of total Bank loans found their way either directly or via DFCs to the industrial sector. This percentage declined slightly in the 1980s to about 12 percent and has declined further in the 1990s. The decline in recent years has been for a variety of reasons; first, the lending to DFCs for industrial sector development has been virtually stopped, and few examples of this type of lending are found, and second, with the increasing emphasis on private sector development, World Bank lending directly to state enterprises has declined. This paper looks at how the World Bank lends for environmental issues in the industrial sector and is intended to provide background for the further development of the Industry and Energy Department's work on environmental policies. Chapter 2 describes in general the trends in project design from the mid-1970s to the present. Lending for the environment in industrial projects has evolved from lending for pollution-control equipment for state-controlled industrial plants to mainly technical assistance for industrial environmental policy formulation and enforcement and the financing of credit lines for pollution-control equipment. A brief description of some projects is also given in this section to illustrate the evolution in project design. The second section looks in more detail at the technical assistance component in some of these projects. This takes several forms: from World Bank lending for environmental policy formulation and implementation in the industrial sector to studies of the effects of industrial pollution. The third section discusses the industry-related component of some country environmental action plans (EAPs) and looks at how recent World Bank industry/environment projects in those countries fit in with the corresponding EAP.


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    Industry and the environment : Patterns in World Bank lending

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    environmental clean-up;national environmental;incentive for pollution abatement;industrial pollution control;state of emergency;enforcement of standards;acquisition of laboratory;reduction of pollution;environmental action plan;environmental policy formulation;availability of finance;Drainage and Irrigation;transfer of resource;availability of fund;gdp growth rate;acquisition of equipment;pollution levy system;sewage treatment facility;wastewater treatment facility;hazardous waste management;comprehensive environmental strategy;development finance company;waste treatment facility;provision of advice;per capita income;source of pollution;waste water treatment;cost of fund;sewage treatment plant;air pollution control;implementation of regulation;biological oxygen demand;dust from road;particulate matter emissions;sulfur dioxide emission;method of production;long-term interest rate;natural resource use;state environmental protection;industrial sector;credit line;industrial enterprise;



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Industry and the environment : Patterns in World Bank lending (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.