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Indonesia - The transmigration program in perspective (English)

Between 1980 and 1986 the Indonesian Transmigration Program supported the movement of more than two million people from the densely populated inner islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok to the less populated outer islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. Because of the size of the program and because a number of settlements were opened in forest areas, the program attracted international attention, particularly from environmental groups concerned with deforestation and conservation. In 1986 new settlement under the transmigration program came to a virtual halt as the government reassessed its priorities. This report was initiated in 1985 as a review of resettlement in the third five-year plan (1979-1984). By that time, data were available which permitted an assessment of migrant incomes and economic returns to settlement models. Evidence was also available on the role of the program in employment generation, demographic change and regional development. Environmental and social issues were also reviewed. Among the conclusions emerging from the report were that economic rates of return and initial settler incomes were low and that the program was complex and difficult to implement. Spontaneous migrants were not adequately incorporated into program planning and the scale of the program heightened concern about the environmental impact and potential social problems.

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Indonesia - The transmigration program in perspective (English). A World Bank country study Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/353671468771708841/Indonesia-The-transmigration-program-in-perspective