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Water resources management in Japan : policy, institutional and legal issues (Chinese)

Japan has periodically suffered from severe water shortages, particularly since the rapid economic and population growth that began in the 1960's. Government policies, however, combined with supporting institutional and legal frameworks, as well as enforcement, seem to have effectively addressed the problem. Hopefully the lessons from Japan will provide some useful insights for other countries, such as China, that face similar water scarcity problems in the context of rapid economic and population growth. This paper reviews the implementation of water resources management in Japan. The focus is primarily on the policy, legal, and institutional frameworks for water resources management, with special emphasis on the use of market-based policies as well as more traditional command-and-control policies (regulations). The paper has eight sections. After this introductory section, the second section briefly discusses the present situation of water resources availability in Japan. Sections three to five review the role of government, budgeting and financing issues, and legal frameworks for water resources management. Sections six and seven are the core of the paper. Section six discusses the use of various market-based instruments such as water tariffs, subsidies, water trading, private sector participation contacts, and special purpose taxes. Section seven discusses the use of command-and control measures such as water resources allocation (water rights and/or permits), and water pollution controls (water quality standards and/or effluent regulations). Section eight contains concluding remarks.




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Water resources management in Japan : policy, institutional and legal issues (Chinese). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.