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Mexico - Gender Assessment (English)

Gender equality is a key pathway to ensuring lasting poverty reduction and shared prosperity. Identifying the main gender gaps that a country faces, across different domains, better informs policy design. To that effect, this report seeks to identify where progress has been achieved in increasing opportunities and outcomes for women and men in Mexico and where further policy action is required. It focuses on three areas that are critical for gender-equal access to opportunities: (a) endowments, such as health and education; (b) economic opportunities, such as access to labor, land, and financial markets; and (c) agency, including norms, representation, and freedom from violence (World Bank 2012). The report takes advantage of the existing literature as well as different sources of publicly available data for the country and aims to provide a panorama of the prevailing gender gaps and areas for work to close those gaps, covering a wide range of outcomes. As such, it seeks to serve as a guiding document for policy action and dialogue, further research, and public discussion. With respect to health, three issues stand out. First, teenage pregnancy is very high relative to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and is especially frequent among poor, low-educated, and indigenous girls. Second, although maternal mortality rates have declined, they are still very high in some regions and among vulnerable population groups, including rural and indigenous women. Finally, the incidence of obesity is among the highest in the world, which is linked to high incidence of diabetes and diabetes-related deaths, particularly among women. When it comes to education, gender gaps in enrollment and attainment are still a concern in lagging regions, where women face an especially large risk of dropping out, largely because of teenage pregnancy. Tertiary education, although more common now than ever before, is still far from being available to all women. Moreover, Mexico is among the lowest-ranking performers in international standardized tests among OECD countries, with girls underperforming more than boys, especially beginning in upper-secondary school. Differences in learning are reflected in educational choices, as women and men are still segregated across fields of education and areas of specialization. Beyond human capital endowments, it is difficult to imagine that women can thrive without access to productive inputs, including physical and financial assets, particularly if they are the sole breadwinners. In 2018, 65 percent of women did not own a high-value asset.


  • Author

    Inchauste Comboni,Maria Gabriela, Tavares,Paula Magarinos Torres, Reteguis, Nayda Almodóvar, Moreno Herrera,Laura Liliana, Arceo-Gómez, Eva, Ríos Cázares, Alejandra, Santillán, Alma, Cadena,Kiyomi E., Iacovone,Leonardo, Saucedo Carranza,Cecilia Belem, Anderson,Mary Alice

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    Working Paper

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    Latin America & Caribbean,

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  • Doc Name

    Mexico - Gender Assessment

  • Keywords

    leading cause of death; national survey; Poverty and Equity; transition from school to work; equal pay for equal work; life expectancy at birth; access to health care; gender gap in primary; gender division of labor; information and communication technology; political representation of woman; female labor force participation; higher level of education; children per woman; male life expectancy; intimate partner violence; human capital endowment; increase in deaths; violence against woman; death among women; level of consumption; global fertility rate; high fat content; areas of specialization; discrimination against woman; labor market outcome; body mass index; gap in enrollment; access to finance; maternal mortality rate; positive role model; labor market participation; access to care; automated teller machine; primary health care; female life expectancy; change in population; population with access; vulnerable population group; birth control method; financial management capacity; risky sexual behavior; barrier to woman; primary health system; kinds of asset; role in society; years of schooling; tertiary education enrollment; flexible work arrangement; conflicts of interest; equality of woman; radio and television; public health policy; prevalence of overweight; crime and violence; girls in math; indigenous woman; rural area; teenage pregnancy; homicide rate; teenage girl; gender difference; dependency rate; institutional failure; healthy eating; heart disease; physical activity; average age; dependency ratio; adolescent pregnancy; noncommunicable diseases; socioeconomic status; maternal death; replacement rate; census data; early pregnancy; lagging region; contraceptive method; gender stereotype; school attendance; child's age; perceived vulnerability; teen pregnancy; early age; legal framework; Infant Mortality; intergenerational transmission; equitable access; younger cohort; indigenous communities; indigenous community; sexual harassment; improved health; children of ages; behavioral factor; demographic structure; greater access; Demographic Transition; youth bulge; productive resource; tie in; financial inclusion; high concentration; Reproductive Health; geographic location; professional opportunities; leave policy; school program; aging population; long-term care; unequal opportunity; healthy society; male wage; illiteracy rate; adolescent girl; healthy lifestyle; graduation rate; obesity prevalence; excise tax; Tax Reform; gender disparity; adult man; fatal accident; adult woman; lung disease; liver disease; local entities; average score; participating country; high school; panel data; educational outcome; early motherhood; Women's Education; resource availability; tertiary level; point gap; national household; tertiary schooling; school construction; college enrollment; age cohort; living condition; older woman; gender norm; positive impact; soap operas; indigenous population; pregnant woman; school dropout; reduced work; early childbearing; teenage motherhood; elderly care; teenage fertility; elderly population; population estimate; living standard; Health Service; Public Spending; women's empowerment; administrative datum; live birth; urban woman; obstetrics service; multiple dimension; sexual relation; secondary enrollment; working woman; family structure; physical asset; gender violence; legal norm; public place; financial technology; educational choice; Gender Equality; subsidiary right; mortality ratio; political participation; tertiary enrollment; university enrollment; noncommercial purposes; working-age women; societal norms; younger generation; potential barrier; performance gap; equal access; ict infrastructure; indigenous girl; financial product; financial market; productivity gap



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Inchauste Comboni,Maria Gabriela Tavares,Paula Magarinos Torres Reteguis, Nayda Almodóvar Moreno Herrera,Laura Liliana Arceo-Gómez, Eva Ríos Cázares, Alejandra Santillán, Alma Cadena,Kiyomi E. Iacovone,Leonardo Saucedo Carranza,Cecilia Belem Anderson,Mary Alice

Mexico - Gender Assessment (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.