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Social safety nets in fragile states : a community-based school feeding program in Togo : Filets sociaux de securite dans les etats fragiles : le programme d'alimentation scolaire a base communautaire au Togo (French)

This paper reviews a small community-based school feeding program launched in Togo in response to the 2007/08 food price crisis. The discussion focuses on the operational and policy lessons emerging from the program, to better understand opportunities for scale up and sustainability in the future. A focus of the discussion is how to build safety nets in fragile states and in situations where there is weak and fragmented government capacity to deliver services to disadvantaged and vulnerable communities. In this context school feeding is explored as an entry point through the use of informal mechanisms based on the commitment of communities and civil society. The analysis is premised on quantitative and qualitative analysis carried out at program sites. The discussion identifies the operational challenges and opportunities in customizing school feeding within Togo with an emphasis on targeting, cost effectiveness, procurement and institutional aspects. Evidence on the economic and social benefits of the program is also presented, focusing on dietary impacts, as well as household and local community effects. The objective of the discussion is to share lessons learned from evaluation findings so that they can be useful for implementing similar programs in the future in Togo itself or in other countries. Findings from the analysis highlight the possibilities of implementing school feeding in a low capacity setting and the scope for using the program as a springboard towards a broader and more comprehensive social safety net.


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    Andrews, Colin Galliano, Elena Turk, Carolyn Zampaglione, Giuseppe

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    Filets sociaux de securite dans les etats fragiles : le programme d'alimentation scolaire a base communautaire au Togo

  • Keywords

    access to education, administrative costs, adults, agricultural activities, agricultural practices, agricultural production, agricultural sector, Agriculture, availability of food, Average Number of Students, baking, beer, beneficiaries, beneficiary, Bread, brewing, calcium, capacity building, cassava, Child Development, chronic poverty, chronically poor, clean drinking water, communities, Community Development, condiments, Conflict, cooking, coping strategies, Corn, cost effectiveness, demand for food, drinking water, dropout rate, economic crisis, economic security, economic stress, Education For All, education services, educational achievement, educational benefits, employment opportunities, enrolment rate, external resources, external shocks, female participation, financial difficulties, first grade, food aid, food availability, food consumption, food delivery, food handling, food insecurity, food intake, Food Items, food needs, Food Policy, food price, food prices, food pricing, food production, food products, food quality, food safety, food security, food supply, food transfers, foods, formal school, fruit, gender, gender equity, government capacity, health care, health insurance, Health Organization, health programs, health services, health system, household consumption, household food insecurity, Household needs, household nutrition, household size, human capital, Human Development, hygiene, IFPRI, incidence of poverty, inclusion, Income, income replacement, income-generating activities, informal coping mechanisms, informal mechanisms, infrastructure projects, institutional capacity, International Food Policy, learning, mainstreaming, maize, malnutrition, meal, meal preparation, meat, minimum wage, number of children, number of repeaters, number of school children, Number of Schools, number of students, nutrition interventions, nutritional deficits, Nutritive Value, okra, older children, Parent-Teacher Associations, Parent­ Teacher Associations, Parent­Teacher Associations, participation of girls, pasta, payment of teachers, Peanuts, peppers, poor, poor children, poor household, poverty incidence, poverty levels, poverty line, Poverty Reduction, Poverty Reduction Strategy, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, poverty status, primary completion, primary completion rate, primary education, primary school, primary school age, primary school age children, primary school children, primary school enrolment, primary school students, Primary Schools, productive assets, protection policy, Protein, proteins, Public Pensions, public resource, retention rate, rice, risk management, rural, rural areas, rural household, rural population, rural regions, rural schools, rural village, rural villages, safe water, safety net programs, safety net systems, sanitation, Savings, school administrators, School Attendance, school calendar, school community, school days, School Education, School Enrolment, school equipment, School Feeding, School Feeding Programs, school fees, school furniture, school level, school lunch, school management, school meal, School Meals, school operations, school participation, school program, school walls, school year, School Years, school-age, school-age children, Schools, secondary school, service providers, Sharecropping, smallholder farmers, social benefits, social development, Social Protection, social safety net, Social Safety Nets, Social Security, social services, society, socioeconomic infrastructure, staple foods, subsidizing, Sustainable Development, targeting, Teacher, Teachers, teaching, tomatoes, transfer of resources, transportation, universal education, vegetables, village level, Village school, village teacher, vitamins, vulnerable households, Welfare Programs, WFP, wheat, World Food Program



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Andrews, Colin Galliano, Elena Turk, Carolyn Zampaglione, Giuseppe

Social safety nets in fragile states : a community-based school feeding program in Togo : Filets sociaux de securite dans les etats fragiles : le programme d'alimentation scolaire a base communautaire au Togo (French). Social Protection discussion paper ; no. SP 1117 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.