Since the 1950s, the economy of Eritrea has entered into a phase of long-term decline. In 1974, when the military regime in Ethiopia adopted a command economy, most private sector assets including land, housing, and industries, including those in Eritrea, were nationalized. The adverse impact of centrally planned policies was further compounded in the last two decades by the intensification of war, the recurrence of droughts and famines, and lack of foreign exchange to import essential inputs. At the time of its liberation in 1991, Eritrea inherited enterprises that were non-operational; an agricultural sector that was severely disrupted by the war; damaged infrastructure; and health and educational facilities that were destroyed. Eritrea has also suffered significant environmental damage, through the degradation of its land, water, and forestry resources. Along with the damage done to the economy and society, Eritrea has inherited institutions and instruments that were geared for managing a command economy. This CEM examines the key elements of an overall growth strategy for Eritrea, exploring options and trade-offs that the decision-makers face. The focus of the CEM is on: 1) strengthening the macroeconomic environment; 2) promoting exports; 3) facilitating enterprise development; 4) realizing the potential of agriculture; 5) improving labor markets; 6) investing in education; 7) investing in health, and nutrition; 8) enhancing the role of community participation in poverty reduction; 9) prioritizing infrastructure support; and 10) improving the environment.
Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
Executive summary and main report
Agricultural and Industrial Development Bank;public works program;access to safe drinking water;port and maritime;access to safe water;Improving Labor Markets;health and nutrition;foreign exchange;access to sanitation;average for sub-saharan africa;water resources and irrigation;population per hospital bed;free movement of people;average per capita income;life expectancy at birth;infant and child mortality;annual population growth rate;Vocational and Technical Education;land use category;water supply and sanitation;early stage of development;junior secondary school enrollment;tax and customs administration;regulatory and prudential framework;decades of war;Agriculture;private foreign investment;Enterprise Development;rural area;engine of growth;balance of payment;efficient labor market;skill shortage;Financial Sector;gross domestic product;expenditure management system;pupil per textbook;pupils per teacher;primary school enrollment;adult literacy rate;foreign exchange needs;crude death rate;contraceptive prevalence rate;maternal mortality rate;population per physician;labor employment;natural resource base;health sector objectives;community development program;low cost housing;basic social service;sound financial practice;economic policy reform;tight fiscal policy;return on investment;operations and maintenance;competitive exchange rate;financial sector development;amount of investment;factor of production;participation of girl;rural financial service;sustainable poverty reduction;private sector enterprise;Production of Crops;foreign exchange allocation;child mortality rate;amount of land;availability of water;high unemployment rate;local decision making;income generating opportunity;basic computer skills;adult literacy program;access to textbook;deposit of petroleum;acute respiratory infection;real growth rate;peace and democracy;export of goods;price of energy;growth in agriculture;promotion of investment;high fertility rate;lack of infrastructure;preventive health care;current account balance;Coastal Zone Management;community health services;animal health service;access to latrines;animal husbandry practice;hours of instruction;export processing zone;private sector involvement;payment of salary;independent monetary policy;village or town;second world war;prudent fiscal policy;external financial assistance;private sector asset;retail price index;interest rate policy;Trade and Transport;human resource indicators;education and health;weak civil service;Internally Displaced Person;destruction of forest;household expenditure patterns;traditional land tenure;form of remuneration;trade and transportation;capital expenditure;
- See More
Official version of document (may contain signatures, etc)
Eritrea - Options and strategies for growth : Executive summary and main report (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/401511468752060584/Executive-summary-and-main-report