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Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma (English)

Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma examines the underlying economics of different types of digital technologies. It highlights what the new drivers of change are, why the dynamics with this latest round of technological change may be different, and what the distributional impacts may be within and across countries. It then examines the evidence for how different digital technologies are – or are not – contributing to competitiveness and opportunities for small and young firms, and firms in less developed areas, and what can be done about it. Europe faces a digital dilemma. European firms are particularly strong in operational technologies such as smart robotics and 3D printing. While this helps Europe's competitiveness, it also widens the divide between large and small firms, and leading and lagging regions. On the other hand, digital technologies, such as transactional technologies or matching platforms, have the greatest potential for market inclusion and convergence, but this is where Europe remains less competitive. The report lays out how Europe 4.0 is attainable. The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has highlighted the importance of the data economy — and raised the risks if the digital dilemma is not addressed. This report provides a framework, evidence and recommendations on how governments can respond. Europe has the chance to attain a dynamic and inclusive technologically enhanced future, it should take that chance.


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    Hallward-Driemeier,Mary C., Nayyar,Gaurav, Fengler,Wolfgang, Aridi,Anwar, Gill,Indermit S.

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    Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma

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    small and medium size enterprise; digital technology; global value chain; new york stock exchange; information and communication; access to broadband; data policy; steady state level; Enterprise Resource Planning; quality of infrastructure; demand for skill; technology and markets; internet of things; fund research; labor productivity growth; gap in access; national innovation system; loss of job; Merger and Acquisitions; initial public offering; access to ict; foreign direct investment; European Economic Area; centers of excellence; social protection system; privileges and immunity; number of workers; employment growth; cloud computing; economic competitiveness; big data; 3d printing; firm level; artificial intelligence; e-commerce platform; technology adoption; high share; new technology; spatial concentration; firm size; lagging region; single market; efficiency gain; Financial Sector; online sale; data privacy; first wave; performance gap; social value; traditional leaders; comparative advantage; economic convergence; complementary factor; digital infrastructure; traditional company; remote location; business management; Broadband Access; competition authority; transportation equipment; manufacturing industry; public good; capita basis; resilient recovery; Trade Policies; regulatory environment; industrial robot; digital market; market capitalization; retail banking; patent application; central country; real gdp; digital connectivity; business model; capital intensity; risk capital; digital economy; digital transformation; personal life; traditional sector; exponential growth; market transaction; large enterprise; manufactured goods; middle class; tech company; medium enterprise; industrial company; digital opportunity; new market; information asymmetry; social distance; large incumbent; technological change; scale economy; spatial convergence; economic crisis; size distribution; productivity benefit; transactions cost; cumulative growth; production cost; machine learning; fiscal mechanism; knowledge production; Competition Law; supply chain; Research Support; computer programmer; business environment; firm performance; Knowledge Hub; Trade Policy; cultural impact; new entrant; access market; management capability; Market Dominance; Job Creation; business experience; regional concentration; remote area; competition policy; logistics support; logistic support; global economy; healthcare sector; enabling technologies; product innovation; productivity gap; data sharing; transfer arrangement; regulatory system; Technology Diffusion; digital convergence; communication services; protecting worker; technology start-up; Competition Regulation; occupational hazard; noncommercial purposes; high capital; environmental goal; market penetration; global pandemic; management software; privacy protection



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Hallward-Driemeier,Mary C. Nayyar,Gaurav Fengler,Wolfgang Aridi,Anwar Gill,Indermit S.

Europe 4.0: Addressing the Digital Dilemma (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.