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Ebb and Flow, Volume 1 : Water, Migration, and Development (Vol. 2) : Appendix (English)

Migration shapes the lives of those who move and transforms the geographies and economies of their points of departure and destinations alike. The water sector, and the availability of water itself, implicitly and explicitly shape migration flows. Ebb and Flow, Volume 1. Water, Migration, and Development presents new global evidence to advance our understanding of how fluctuations in water availability, as induced by rainfall shocks, influence internal migration, and hence regional development. It finds that cumulative water deficits result in five times as much migration as water excess does. But there are important nuances in why and when these events lead to migration. Where there is extreme poverty and migration is costly, water deficits are more likely to trap people than induce them to migrate. Water shocks can also influence who migrates. Workers leaving regions because of water deficits are often less advantaged than typical migrants and bring with them lower skills, raising important implications for the migrants themselves and receiving regions. Cities are the destination of most internal migrants, but even here, water scarcity can haunt them. Water shortages in urban areas, which lead to so-called day zero events, can significantly slow urban growth and compound the vulnerability of migrants. No single policy can be completely effective at protecting people and their assets from water shocks. Instead, the report puts forth a menu of overlapping and complementary policy options that target both people and places to improve livelihoods and turn water-induced crises into opportunities for growth. A key message is that policies that focus on reducing the impacts of water shocks must be complemented by strategies that broaden opportunities and build the long-term resilience of communities. Doing so will give individuals more agency to determine the best outcome for themselves and to thrive wherever they may choose to locate.


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    net migration rate; international food policy research institute; in-migration; international water management; effect of climate variability; impact of rainfall; cost of irrigation; place of residence; migrant; forest model; Population and Development; measurement of migration; number of migrants; multivariate regression analysis; place of origin; marital status; individual characteristic; determinants of migration; change in precipitation; former soviet union; impact of temperature; global environmental change; mean annual temperature; distribution of population; linear time trend; response to disaster; changes of residence; change in population; types of migration; migration across countries; large urban areas; impact of irrigation; population and environment; time series data; european space agency; access to irrigation; multiple regression analysis; list of countries; changes in policy; climatic shocks; machine learning; standard deviation; internal migration; decision tree; household size; forest access; migration decision; demographic characteristic; census data; annual rainfall; regression model; standard error; explanatory power; high irrigation; statistical significance; internal migrant; migration transition; education variable; climate characteristic; migration pattern; regional geography; environmental drivers; air temperature; negative coefficient; indicator variable; data sample; Temporary Migration; Population Growth; individual decision; permanent migration; global estimate; migration datum; subnational region; administrative region; annual precipitation; climatic condition; forest classification; predictive power; climate variation; net change; monthly observation; climatic zone; robustness check; differential impact; weather data; south sudan; rainfall variability; initial distribution; water-intensive crop; several times; measurement error; arid region; migration on migrant; weather shock; Social Sciences; inferential statistic; relevant population; climatic variation; individual level; population census; model tests; long-term migration; human migration; monthly temperature; rainfall anomalies; adaptive response; administrative boundary; shock variable; climatic factor; migration intensity; affluent countries; household characteristic; environmental condition; population center; trend growth; household survey; Population Policy; climate shock; public use; learning technique; average temperature; conceptual framework; reference point; data mining; climatic change; data distribution; environmental variable; migrant use; primary production; regression results; crop area; individual data; migrant population; geographic distribution; comparative research; education level; migrant origin; population level; climate condition; socioeconomic data; irrigation costs; forest loss; large population; small population; migrant status; human capital; irrigated land; cgiar research; big data; noncommercial purposes; subsidiary right; rural-urban migration; geographical distribution; urban water; Global Warming; biogeochemical cycle; earth system; rainfall data; climatic difference; linear combination; migration period; migration drivers; agricultural crop; average precipitation; climatic variability; climate variable; average rainfall; negative value; environmental data; migration outcomes; regional data; temperature control



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Ebb and Flow, Volume 1 : Water, Migration, and Development (Vol. 2) : Appendix (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.