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The long-run and gender-equalizing impacts of school access : evidence from the first Indochina war (English)

Very few studies currently exist on the long-term impacts of schooling policies in developing countries. This paper examines the impacts -- half a century later -- of a mass education program conducted by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the occupied areas during the First Indochina War. Difference-in-difference estimation results suggest that school-age children who were exposed to the program obtained significantly higher levels of education than their peers who were residing in French-occupied areas. The impacts are statistically significant for school-age girls and not for school-age boys. The analysis finds beneficial spillover and inter-generational impacts of education: affected girls enjoyed higher household living standards, had more educated spouses, and raised more educated children. The paper discusses various robustness checks and extensions that support these findings.


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    Dang,Hai-Anh H., Hoang,Trung Xuan, Nguyen,Ha Minh

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    Policy Research Working Paper

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    East Asia and Pacific,

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    The long-run and gender-equalizing impacts of school access : evidence from the first Indochina war

  • Keywords

    estimation result; long-run impact; years of schooling; robustness check; War; treatment group; social benefits of education; Macroeconomics & Growth; Macroeconomics and Growth; higher level of education; net secondary enrollment rate; school policy; impact of education; school-age child; long-term impact; household living standard; primary school level; upper secondary level; education outcome; returns to schooling; household consumption survey; school access; access to school; reading literacy; treatment effect; achieving gender equality; positive spillover effect; human development outcome; Education and Development; system education; female illiteracy rate; investment in school; quality of education; high school student; accessibility of school; complete primary education; complete secondary education; secondary school level; model education; school construction program; middle school student; linear regression model; basic literacy skill; formal education system; ethnic majority group; elementary school student; universal school access; return to education; labor market outcome; birth cohort; children's education; mass education; Popular Education; school-age girl; richer countries; household head; parental education; positive shock; production function; fixed effect; gain control; identification approach



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Dang,Hai-Anh H. Hoang,Trung Xuan Nguyen,Ha Minh

The long-run and gender-equalizing impacts of school access : evidence from the first Indochina war (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 8480,LSMS Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.