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Gender and COVID-19 : What have we learnt, one year later (English)

One year into the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper takes stock of new data and analysis to provide an up-to date picture of how women and men have been affected differently in terms of endowments, economic conditions, and agency. With regards to health outcomes, men have suffered a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 mortality, and more men than women were diagnosed with COVID-19. On the other hand, the disruptions in service provision have worsened reproductive health outcomes in several countries. In terms of education, data is scarce but there is no evidence for the hypothesis that families redirected scarce resources to prioritize education of boys over girls. However, girls report having taken on the additional care burden to a larger extent than boys, with potential impacts on their learning time. In terms of labor market consequences, women were more likely than men to stop working and have borne the brunt of the increase in the demand for care work. Businesses with female top managers have also experienced disproportionately more negative impacts. Finally, with respect to voice and agency, the risk of violence has increased for women and girls, especially intimate partner violence. In addition, women have been under-represented in decision-making on COVID-19 and, in some contexts, disadvantaged in access to critical information. The paper concludes with highlighting the importance of collecting sex-disaggregated data to understand the gender-differentiated impacts of the pandemic.


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    De Paz Nieves,Carmen, Gaddis,Isis, Muller,Miriam

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    Policy Research Working Paper

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    The World Region,

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  • Doc Name

    Gender and COVID-19 : What have we learnt, one year later ?

  • Keywords

    health-care-seeking behavior; Poverty and Equity; female-owned business; gender gap in access; accessibility of health care; poor mental health; women of childbearing age; labor force participation rate; female labor force participation; access to the internet; access to health service; Reproductive and Maternal Health; gender gap in primary; gender difference; gender differentiated impact; share of woman; labor market impact; essential health services; lower income countries; public health insurance; disruption of service; job loss; loss of job; family care workers; analysis of gender; majority of children; women at risk; gender equality outcomes; education and health; risk of contagion; share of children; infectious disease outbreak; health insurance coverage; risk of exposure; health sector workers; labor market outcome; body mass index; upper secondary education; return to education; risk of death; intimate partner violence; full time workers; risk of violence; high school student; terms of education; adverse pregnancy outcome; leave of absence; access to internet; labor market uncertainties; labor market uncertainty; inequity within country; reproductive health outcomes; household survey data; barrier to woman; change in employment; health insurance companies; mental health outcomes; health care system; fatality rate; transmission channel; pregnant woman; female student; learning activity; school closure; confirmed case



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De Paz Nieves,Carmen Gaddis,Isis Muller,Miriam

Gender and COVID-19 : What have we learnt, one year later (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9709,COVID-19 (Coronavirus) Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.