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Free Primary Education, Fertility, and Women's Access to the Labor Market : Evidence from Ethiopia (English)

This article investigates the causal relationship between women's schooling and fertility by exploiting variation generated by the removal of school fees in Ethiopia. The increase in schooling caused by the reform is identified using both geographic variation in the intensity of its impact and temporal variation generated by the timing of the implementation. The model finds that the removal of school fees led to an increase in schooling for Ethiopian women and that each additional year of schooling led to a reduction in fertility. An investigation of the underlying mechanisms linking schooling and fertility finds that the decline in fertility is associated with an increase in labor market opportunity and a reduction in women's ideal number of children.


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    Policy Research Working Paper

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    Free Primary Education, Fertility, and Women's Access to the Labor Market : Evidence from Ethiopia

  • Keywords

    Demographic and Health Survey; international institute for educational planning; minimum legal age of marriage; ideal number of children; free primary education; mother tongue instruction; years of schooling; Education and Training Policy; total number of birth; modern methods of contraception; changes in government policy; access to secondary school; knowledge of family planning; number of births; linear trend; language of instruction; standard error; body mass index; in school; ideal family size; school fee; demand for children; labor market outcome; use of contraception; universal primary education; quality of education; returns to schooling; impact of education; economics of education; change in behavior; impact of malaria; distribution of population; Learning and Innovation Credit; compulsory schooling law; investment in children; method of contraception; adult literacy campaign; mother tongue language; ict data; not mutually exclusive; primary school student; access to information; access to health-care; child health outcomes; empowerment for woman; use contraceptive; age of entry; labor market activity; Medium of Instruction; bargaining position; age of child; modern contraceptive methods; linear time trend; information for women; millennium development goal; increase in labor; decline in fertility; birth cohort; married woman; manual job; professional job; first stage; negative relationship; free schooling; school entry; opportunity cost; contraception use; administrative boundary; going out; start school; causal relationship; census data; Civil War; instrumental variable; school child; age trend; fewer child; school year; first birth; household decision; bargaining power; transitional government; fewer births; indicator variable



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Free Primary Education, Fertility, and Women's Access to the Labor Market : Evidence from Ethiopia (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 9105 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.