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Deficits, debt, and savings structure of OECD countries, with trends from 1965 to 1981 (English)

Much has been made of the possible impact of OECD macroeconomic policy on financial flows available to developing countries. Specifically, the low domestic savings rates in many countries, together with governments' own demands for funds in credit markets, may have raised the overall cost of funds, "crowding-out" developing countries. This paper reviews some of the evidence and concludes that the crowding-out hypothesis is not likely. While government budget deficits and borrowing have indeed been large in recent years, revenues and expenditures, when cyclically adjusted, come very close to being in balance. At non-recessionary levels of income, therefore, expenditure and revenue policies are approximately appropriate. Moreover, a close examination of expenditure categories and taxation policies does not reveal a "structural" imbalance, such that future deficits, or growing deficits, are inevitable. The causes of the decline in OECD savings rates are also examined and are found to lie, to some extent, in disincentives which operate at various levels to discourage savings, but not to structural, or inexorable demographic, causes.

Details

  • Author

    Hakim, L. Wallich, C.

  • Document Date

    1985/03/31

  • Document Type

    Staff Working Paper

  • Report Number

    SWP727

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    World,

  • Region

    The World Region,

  • Disclosure Date

    2010/07/01

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Deficits, debt, and savings structure of OECD countries, with trends from 1965 to 1981

  • Keywords

    age distribution;price of health care;per capita public expenditure;social security expenditure;average length of stay;high marginal tax rate;nominal long-term interest rate;demographic change;social good;health care cost;health expenditure;composition of expenditure;health care expenditure;increases in benefit;improvement in technology;social security tax;social security pension;public social expenditure;total government spending;estimate of expenditure;number of beneficiaries;public sector expenditure;school age population;Health Care Delivery;nominal interest rate;total public expenditure;social security benefit;case of health;demand for fund;domestic saving rate;income maintenance program;personal income tax;public sector revenue;quality and standards;gross capital formation;central government debt;national account;government budget deficit;increase in prices;public health expenditure;indirect tax burden;corporate income tax;social security contribution;oil importing countries;share of income;central government revenue;impact on poverty;public sector social;number of workers;public social service;demographic factor;social program;transfer payment;Health Service;unemployment compensation;retirement age;replacement rate;family allowance;transfer program;government expenditure;ambulatory care;behavioral change;middle class;national saving;relative price;indexation formula;real expenditure;government receipt;welfare state;education expenditure;weighted average;unemployment benefit;defense expenditure;corporate tax;oil exporter;health program;government intervention;Higher Education;demographic assumption;Macroeconomic Policy;industrialized country;Industrialized countries;dependency ratio;capital consumption;primary cause;private insurance;pharmaceutical cost;inflationary impact;private expenditure;inflationary expectation;real value;tax threshold;labor participation;education benefit;financial policies;Population Growth;alternative scenarios;eligibility criterion;Fiscal policies;fiscal policy;dramatic increases;income inequality;cyclical factor;standard definition;debt interest;longer period;summary statistic;morbidity rate;government involvement;redistribution policy;political consensus;income rise;gross expenditures;gross flows;equity gain;economic climate;research program;Financing programmes;finance program;earlier retirement;gross investment;housing expenditure;financial flow;local taxes;equity impact;budget balance;potential output;patient demand;admission rate;pensionable age;single person;empirical estimate;expenditure program;earnings levels;expenditure growth;demographic trend;taxation policy;old-age pension;tax elasticity;hospital using;higher expenditure;interest elasticity;national income;private investment;capital transaction;credit market;family benefit;Research Support;financial balance;education health;interest expenditure;long-term projection;drug cost;tax revenue;drug price;public debt;hospital service;fiscal drag;public program;additional revenue;early retirement;Population Projection;aging population;

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Citation

Hakim, L. Wallich, C.

Deficits, debt, and savings structure of OECD countries, with trends from 1965 to 1981 (English). Staff working paper,no. SWP 727 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/467041468765036565/Deficits-debt-and-savings-structure-of-OECD-countries-with-trends-from-1965-to-1981