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Pre-primary education in Mongolia : access, quality of service delivery, & child development outcomes - March 2017 (English)

Sustaining in recent years expenditure on early childhood education (ECE) at over a fifth of its education budget, Mongolia is a relatively high spender on pre-primary education. This report examines structural and process aspects of quality in Mongolian kindergartens, along with early development outcomes among children enrolled in these kindergartens, to assess the effectiveness and equity of the country's public investments in ECE. The analysis shows that while the last decade saw tremendous progress in improving access to preschool overall, the most disadvantaged and vulnerable are still excluded from the system. Further, an assessment of child development outcomes shows that even after significant exposure to formal preschool services in the public sector, socioeconomic gaps in outcomes remain large. At the same time, potential areas where relatively low-cost investments could reap significant gains remain unexploited. Key among these is use of home- or community-based ECE interventions that could improve school preparedness among children in rural areas not enrolled in preschools. Another is the potential for an expanded role for the private sector in urban areas.


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    East Asia and Pacific,

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    Pre-primary education in Mongolia : access, quality of service delivery, & child development outcomes - March 2017

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    mother and child health care;Primary and Secondary Education;delivery of education service;efficiency of public spending;gender gap in access;public expenditure on education;teaching and learning materials;data collection and analysis;Early childhood education;quality improvement efforts;gross enrollment ratio;education development plan;children from households;piece of legislation;early childhood experience;share of resource;flow of data;local education authority;quality assurance mechanism;community and school;access to preschool;international development partner;data collection process;child with disability;gap in knowledge;impact on child;delivery of service;low population density;cost of heat;per capita term;opportunity for child;number of teachers;expenditure education;expenditure in education;flow of fund;local government authority;social insurance benefit;minor repair work;government education expenditure;per capita cost;total public expenditure;gross enrolment ratio;share of children;children in preschool;inequalities in opportunity;development of skill;society in general;quality of learning;bottom income quintile;social welfare program;high school dropout;conditional cash transfer;rural area;variable cost;enrollment rate;school supply;school readiness;cognitive development;preschool enrollment;children of ages;household wealth;government spending;nomadic population;mobile teacher;educational institution;young age;preschool program;standard deviation;preschool institution;household head;cognitive outcome;teaching staff;school year;ethnic gaps;remote area;extracurricular activity;cognitive ability;nomadic herder;herder population;official estimates;geographical spread;daily amount;maternal education;parental contribution;summer months;teacher salary;meal cost;education budget;Child development;capital expenditure;employee wage;household characteristic;budget constraint;Basic Education;investment target;basic structure;alternative program;survey sample;household environment;state transfer;expenditure pattern;local budget;primary spending;learning opportunity;legal framework;utility cost;children's development;harsh winters;counseling service;mitigation option;traditional form;central regions;salary levels;education institution;wooden structures;household level;alternative system;wealth index;school teacher;college graduate;education level;early stimulation;achievement gap;educational activities;academic performance;tuition fee;annual expenditure;public education;education systems;Higher Education;private finance;physical development;draft resolution;socioeconomic background;cultural setting;home visit;government fund;state subsidy;nomadic lifestyle;boarding facility;school entry;cognitive skill;government expenditure;supplementary resource;macroeconomic environment;domestic revenue;nutritional status;financial constraint;financing system;life skill;consultation service;help child;education department;cluster survey;rural district;wooden frame;standard requirement;parental engagement;kindergarten child;assessment instrument;emotional development;motor development;Research Support;raise funds;community mobilization;individual characteristic;temperature range;information campaign;print media;outreach activity;monitor compliance;education outcome;climate condition;vulnerable child;speech development;comparative analysis;language development;poor child;socioeconomic differences;regulatory environment;educational environment;public subsidy;Criminal justice;high share;formal preschool;population group;rural public;socioeconomic status;child's household;educational outcome;income eligibility;disadvantaged family;local property;regional assembly;attendance rate;wealth quintile;government resource;primary gross enrollment ratio;classroom activity;public financing;teacher-student ratio;teaching material;mongolian language;future investment;budget allocation;annual production;statistical yearbook;disabled child;rote learning



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Pre-primary education in Mongolia : access, quality of service delivery, & child development outcomes - March 2017 (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.