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Indonesia - Long-term impact evaluation of Generasi (English)

Indonesia has made remarkable strides in key human development indicators over the past few decades. Primary school enrollment is close to universal for both boys and girls, and the child mortality rate has declined rapidly (World Bank 2017). Nevertheless, infant mortality, child malnutrition, maternal mortality, and educational learning quality have all remained challenges in Indonesia compared to other countries in the region (World Bank 2015). Furthermore, achievements in these indicators reveal large geographical disparities within Indonesia, with poorer outcomes in rural and remote provinces and districts. Improving access to basic quality health and education services is a key component of the country’s overall poverty reduction strategy. This document describes the findings from an evaluation carried out in 2016-2017 to determine Generasi’s long-term impact. It represents the fourth and final wave of evaluations; the first three waves were carried out between 2007 and 2010. The baseline survey took place from June to August 2007. The second wave was conducted from October 2008 to January 2009, after 15 to 18 months of Generasi implementation. The third survey was implemented from October 2009 to January 2010 after 27 to 30 months of project implementation. The most recent survey was carried out between October 2016 and February 2017 after nine years of program implementation. Over 46,000 household members, village heads, and school and health facility staff were surveyed in the final round.


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    Olken,Benjamin, Sacks,Audrey, Endarso,Gregorius Kelik Agus, Subandoro,Ali Winoto, Wrobel,Robert

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    East Asia and Pacific,

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    Indonesia - Long-term impact evaluation of Generasi

  • Keywords

    experimental design; block grant; junior secondary school enrollment; maternal and child health; secondary school enrollment rate; conditional cash transfer program; share of health expenditure; target indicator; block grant program; long-term impact; mother and child; child mortality rate; human development indicator; community health center; improvements in health; primary school enrollment; age of child; block grant allocation; households with child; public service provision; Health Service Delivery; infant health services; participatory planning exercise; increasing school enrollment; primary school participation; long term outcomes; health service provider; access to health; Funds for Education; school participation rate; child health care; center for population; indicators for child; education service delivery; child with disability; education and health; higher education level; difference in outcomes; access to treatment; public health intervention; students with disability; Population and Poverty; Access to Education; children at risk; junior secondary student; performance bonus; sub-district level; Postnatal Care; rural area; education target; long-term outcome; treatment effect; education indicator; performance incentive; target health; Maternal Mortality; community participation; health indicator; target beneficiary; health activities; young child; provincial breakdown; nutrition counseling; Basic Education; Education Services; high school; Infant Mortality; disadvantaged area; village head; rural program; school attendance; effective policies; universal coverage; school year; subsequent years; demand constraints; health programming; Change Program; social mapping; positive impact; baseline survey; achievement level; nutritional supplement; underweight rates; malnutrition rates; Maternal Health; standard error; evaluation design; budget allocation; descriptive statistic; health outcome; qualitative study; school material; children of ages; sampling design; previous evaluation; attrition rates; remote province; program impact; school official; geographical disparity; pregnant woman; child malnutrition; infrastructure cost; attending school; educational service; rural ones; discussion group; infrastructure spending; individual household; data limitation; private provider; fund subsidies; transportation fund; village management; education facility; consultation workshop; incentive system; health clinics; education intervention; school building; test score; school supply; education expenditure; branch school; supplementary feeding; rural village; health interventions; elementary school; grant funds; microcredit program; intervention impact; village fund; local infrastructure; supplementary food; project intervention; health fund; ratchet effect; operational recommendations; long-term effect; education status; supply side; outreach effort; urban community; educational enrollment; village investment; delivery program; community for use; immunization rate; behavioral change; geographic distribution; education challenge; bonus system; average age; supply-side interventions; evaluation result; direct transfer; decentralization effort; policy priority; education evaluation; early pregnancy; attendance rate; underweight child; village meeting; performance data; administrative datum; health post; collected data; household head; school-age child; demographic group; adequate coverage; subsidiary right; married woman; education infrastructure; community effort; supplementary material; learning quality; impact analysis; program evaluation; delivery worker; child immunization; fixed effect; stock exchange; iron pills; postnatal visits; Prenatal Care; baseline data; program effect; cross-sectional data; estimation strategy; outcome indicator; household income; household survey; panel data; indicator variable; applicable law; dropping out; male partners; community level; increased demand; gold standard; net effect; health facility



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Olken,Benjamin Sacks,Audrey Endarso,Gregorius Kelik Agus Subandoro,Ali Winoto Wrobel,Robert

Indonesia - Long-term impact evaluation of Generasi (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.