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Rural diversification : lessons from East Asia (English)

As a result of the declining contribution of rice based farming in East Asia, investment in agriculture must diversify to maintain rural incomes. In the short term, countries should : 1) diversify toward crops for which there is a promising market ( fruits, vegetables, livestock products ) rather than sugar, rubber, coconuts and palm oil; and 2) expand small scale industry, marketing, and construction in rural areas. Long term needs include : a) higher yielding secondary food crops; b) better integration of livestock and crop production; c) more flexible irrigation and drainage systems; and d) improved technology to lower the cost of production. The paper concludes that the challenge to agriculture in East Asia is to sustain rice farming whicle expanding into a more flexible, diverse agriculture. The task for aid agencies will be to come up with suitable analytical skills and technical knowledge for the switch from commodity based project lending to broader sectoral support.


  • Author

    Barghouti, Shawki Timmer, Carol Siegel, Paul

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  • Country

    East Asia and Pacific,

  • Region

    East Asia and Pacific,

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    Rural diversification : lessons from East Asia

  • Keywords

    farmer;efficient use of water;international maize and wheat improvement center;Agriculture;world market;efficient allocation of resource;income elasticity of demand;Crop;inefficiencies in resource allocation;small plots of land;domestic production of rice;Private Investment in Education;early stage of development;share of world trade;international rice research institute;food policy analysis;management of irrigation system;Land and Water Resources;rural economy;crop and livestock;asian countries;rice production;rural financial system;price of rice;diversification of agriculture;source income;average farm size;economies of scale;burden price;agricultural sector;efficient resource allocation;economic development policy;unskilled rural worker;investments in agriculture;urban informal sector;water pollution control;agricultural commodity price;process of adjustment;per capita gnp;proximity to market;high yielding variety;production of staple;food grain output;traditional farming system;decline in agriculture;availability of credit;agricultural production system;conferences and seminars;cost of construction;source of revenue;burden of adjustment;scale of production;scale production;public investment portfolio;small farm household;development finance institution;domestic support price;imports of rice;demand for labor;degrees of freedom;piped water supply;rate of growth;domestic price stability;forest industry sector;return to investment;public works program;source of income;benefits from irrigation;price of export;food and agricultural;water and wastewater;cost recovery mechanism;price of output;cost of production;per capita income;irrigation and drainage;cost to consumer;vulnerability of farmers;foreign exchange rate;rural financial market;concentration of land;privatization of state;food security objective;price stabilization;farm income;cropping pattern;rice price;agriculture system;rural area;rice farmer;adjustment cost;food crop;tree crop;Rural Industry;crop system;diversification program;regional specialization;livestock product;world price;asian rice;agricultural economy;world development;adjustment mechanism;consumer demand;investment appraisal;government intervention;cultivation practice;output price;farm level;income disparity;agricultural diversification;market condition;budgetary cost;international market;rice farming;market force;surplus resources;crop production;rice yield;irrigation facility;small farmer;price variability;rural saving;urban sector;input price;structural adjustment;rural community;upland area;crop diversification;price change;urban agricultural policy;urban economy;marketing cost;farm price;alternative crop;price environment;rice cultivation;working capital;border price;labor-intensive services;price forecast;Rural Sector;social infrastructure;Population Growth;rural income;investment policy;price policy;basic food;income source;Rice Intensification;increased demand;price projection;donor agencies;



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Barghouti, Shawki Timmer, Carol Siegel, Paul

Rural diversification : lessons from East Asia (English). World Bank technical paper ; no. WTP 117 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.