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Exploring Accessibility to Employment Opportunities in African Cities : A First Benchmark (English)

This paper presents an analysis of transit accessibility to employment for 11 African cities. The use of identical methodologies and similar data sets allows for the creation of the first benchmark to compare accessibility across urban areas in Africa through different metrics and visuals. The study shows how the spatial pattern of land use and transport systems perform in connecting people to employment opportunities in these various settings. This first comparable benchmark is achieved by overcoming two significant data hurdles that are common in many developing country cities and in Africa in particular: (i) the scarcity of information on the distribution of employment and (ii) the lack of information on transit routes and travel times. These data gaps are filled through a novel methodology to estimate the distribution of employment in urban areas (Employment Opportunity Areas) as well as a comprehensive mapping of informal transit networks. The analysis developed here can be replicated in different cities in the future. The computation of these baseline accessibility studies also opens up the possibility to assess the impacts of future transport investments and/or land use changes, through the use of counterfactual scenarios, which could assist decision makers in these cities. Finally, this analysis can serve as a demonstration that the computation of accessibility metrics is achievable, including in data scarce environments, and should be considered as a progress indicator for Sustainable Development Goal 11.2, which focuses on safe and affordable transport for all, including public transport.

Details

  • Author

    Peralta Quiros,Tatiana, Kerzhner,Tamara, Avner,Paolo

  • Document Date

    2019/08/08

  • Document Type

    Policy Research Working Paper

  • Report Number

    WPS8971

  • Volume No

    1

  • Total Volume(s)

    1

  • Country

    Africa,

  • Region

    Africa,

  • Disclosure Date

    2019/08/08

  • Disclosure Status

    Disclosed

  • Doc Name

    Exploring Accessibility to Employment Opportunities in African Cities : A First Benchmark

  • Keywords

    access to employment opportunity; high level of accessibility; higher levels of access; Employment in Urban Areas; spatial distribution of population; employment opportunities; accessibility to employment; accessibility to job; land use pattern; labor market outcome; urban labor market; land use planning; public transport network; number of jobs; concentration of population; total wage bill; improving road safety; sustainable transport system; transportation infrastructure investment; local decision makers; availability of data; mode of transport; efficient labor market; urban agglomeration economy; land use policy; private service provider; high population density; central business district; components of accessibility; analysis of pattern; public transportation service; time of day; efficiency of transport; number of workers; Public Transit System; types of city; transport for all; public transportation network; analysis of transit; land use change; combination of factor; population with access; access to job; impact of transport; person with disability; transport data; income inequality; employment outcome; spatial mismatch; study area; employment data; transit network; metropolitan area; population estimate; average share; urban economics; living condition; population distribution; accessibility indicator; minibus taxi; rush hour; unequal distribution; unemployment rate; positive impact; high resolution; urban transport; job opportunity; employment prospect; job opportunities; commuter train; Urban Planning; transit route; spatial structure; real wage; longer distance; job location; public transportation mode; transport mode; Transport Systems; urban accessibility; individual characteristic; administrative boundary; disadvantaged adult; driving lesson; commute time; informal settlement; private transport; public bus; built environment; household income; low-income household; accessibility constraint; equitable accessibility; digital representation; population share; natural experiment; negative relationship; increasing share; bus route; financial establishment; travel survey; transit agency; transit information; technology base; open source; taxi rank; collected information; local partner; important component; peak travel; pedestrian access; walk speed; Education Services; administrative datum; empirical literature; mathematical model; satellite imagery; census data; urban productivity; important policy; metropolitan region; transportation supply; population data; accessibility measure; geographic distribution; city neighborhoods; relative distribution; correlation coefficient; bus stop; benchmarking process; social segregation; social exclusion; employment centers; transport route; highway network; income resident; spatial inequality; adverse consequence; land market; agglomeration benefit; spatial development; development pattern; transport investment; rural transportation infrastructure; travel distance; housing opportunity; urban study; transport geography; residential development; transit planning; rapid appraisal; open access; regional science; development policy; transport cost; economic geography; old person; vulnerable situations; financially support; transport planning; previous draft; social inclusion; increase productivity; average worker; average wage; international market; worker productivity; productivity gain; international standard; high wage; urban setting; job distribution; rapid bus; total employment; informal employment; empirical evidence; flat topography; radial road; average speed; local expert; residential location; road class; road category; large mining; literature review; descriptive statistic; oecd countries

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Citation

Peralta Quiros,Tatiana Kerzhner,Tamara Avner,Paolo

Exploring Accessibility to Employment Opportunities in African Cities : A First Benchmark (English). Policy Research working paper,no. WPS 8971 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/514081565267887937/Exploring-Accessibility-to-Employment-Opportunities-in-African-Cities-A-First-Benchmark