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Urban poverty in the context of structural adjustment : recent evidence and policy responses (English)

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, it reviews the available evidence on urban poverty in developing countries in the context of structural adjustment and macroeconomic policy reform during the past decade. Second, it describes the relationship, under conditions of adjustment, between macroeconomic policy changes and urban microlevel outcomes at both household and intrahousehold levels. Third, it assesses the ability of compensatory measures to alleviate particular problems that urban populations in specific countries have experienced during periods of adjustment. The main conclusion of this review is that there is a clear association between macroeconomic distortions and the process of impoverishment taking place in urban areas today. It is legitimate to pay attention to short-term compensatory interventions. However, these cannot be sustained unless they shift their focus away from short-term objectives and seek solutions to the longer-term structural problems associated with poverty. The only way to accomplish this objective is to improve the human capital of the urban poor and to increase the productivity of their labor.


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    Moser, Caroline 0.N., Herbert,Alicia J., Makonne, Roza E.

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    Working Paper (Numbered Series)

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    The World Region,

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    Urban poverty in the context of structural adjustment : recent evidence and policy responses

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    adjustment lending,adjustment policies,adjustment process,aggregate level,Case studies,child labor,chronic poverty,community level,community participation,compensatory measures,cost effectiveness,data sources,debt,developing countries,developing world,Development Report,division of labor,donor agencies,economic activity,economic change,economic efficiency,economic growth,economic reform,education,employment,equal access,equilibrium,essential drugs,exchange rate,expenditures,external shocks,families,financial crises,financing mechanisms,health,health education,health status,household labor,household level,household size,household welfare,housing,human capital,Human Face,income,income generation,income groups,income households,informal sector,institutional arrangements,institutional framework,internal factors,international migration,intervention,labor force,labor force participation,labor market,labor markets,labor productivity,living standards,local authorities,local level,local levels,long run,macro policy,macroeconomic policy,malnutrition,managers,market distortions,market institutions,medium term,mothers,national level,nutrition,nutrition programs,oil,oil prices,policy analysts,policy changes,policy environment,policy initiatives,policy makers,policy reforms,political considerations,political context,political implications,poor households,population groups,Price changes,private sector,productivity,public employment,public expenditure,public expenditures,public health,public provision,public sector,public spending,Public works,purchasing power,real wages,relative prices,resource allocation,safety,safety nets,service delivery,short term,siblings,social costs,Social Dimensions,social policy,social services,structural adjustment,structural adjustment programs,SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT,Sustainable Growth,technical capacity,terms of trade,trade policy,unemployment,urban areas,urban households,urban issue,urban poor,urban population,urban populations,Urban poverty,victims,vulnerable groups,wages,workers



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Moser, Caroline 0.N. Herbert,Alicia J. Makonne, Roza E.

Urban poverty in the context of structural adjustment : recent evidence and policy responses (English). Transportation, Water, and Urban Development Department discussion paper,no. TWU 4 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.