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Livestock and livelihoods in Tanzania : can the sector deliver on growth and poverty reduction (English)

The Tanzania National Panel Survey is a unique source of knowledge and information on rural Tanzania's economy and living standards. Results show that sixty percent of rural households in Tanzania engage in livestock keeping, earning an average of over 20 percent of their income from livestock. From a household livelihood perspective, the importance of poultry emerges clearly alongside that of cattle: the average livestock keeping household holds 44 percent of the total poultry birds in the country. In particular, the poorest 40 percent of rural households rely essentially on small numbers of poultry, with goats becoming more important among the somewhat better-off households, and cattle dominating among the richest 20 percent of rural households. One issue emerging from the analysis is the high degree of concentration in livestock holdings, with the top 20 percent of livestock keepers holding over 80 percent of livestock. Results show that women are relatively disadvantaged in terms of livestock ownership, particularly for cattle: this effect is strongest among poorer households. Where women do own livestock, they appear to be as market oriented as men in selling milk and milk products. However, the sale of live animals is much more frequently handled by men. While the prospects for the livestock sector are promising, there are a number of factors that may constrain households' ability to take advantage of the opportunities offered by a possible growth in the demand for animal food. In particular, the low level of input use and veterinary services, and the high prevalence of reported animal diseases could place restrictions on the extent to which livestock is productive.

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Citation

Zezza, Alberto; Longin Nsiima

Livestock and livelihoods in Tanzania : can the sector deliver on growth and poverty reduction (English). Livestock data innovation in Africa brief ; issue no. 21 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/563451468129889229/Livestock-and-livelihoods-in-Tanzania-can-the-sector-deliver-on-growth-and-poverty-reduction